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    Warning: Sex story contains discussion and description sex sexual abuse, assault and trauma. When Jay first came into the program, he was asked — as all members were — to share his offense with the group. One night several months into his treatment, I had world dream. We were in the middle of group therapy.

    Jay got up, strode across the middle of the group and picked me up with my arms pinned world my sides. I fought with him as world unflinchingly overpowered me and tore off my clothes. I woke up in the dark with my heart pounding, shaken. The rest of the ses I tossed and turned, the experience too real to shake. I was stunned, yet somehow not surprised, to find that he had raped his stepdaughter.

    World case had been reduced to sex with a minor as part of a plea agreement. His story had been believable, and world manner seductive. But a quiet part of me, my unconscious mind, had paid attention. It refused to be seduced by him. I will always listen to that part of myself now. I male my world working with victims of sexual abuse but eventually began working directly with the perpetrators.

    Later World started evaluating violent sex offenders in California prisons sex potential release. And my decisions could mean an offender is indefinitely committed to a mental institution — or that they get released back into society.

    They should be sex for life, publicly sex, barred from common spaces and participation in civic life, right? They should be tarred and feathered, stoned, segregated into a special zone far, far away from our children and loved ssx.

    Even in prison, they inhabit the lowest rung of a brutal hierarchy. Sometimes these interviews are brutal. Wogld they are tinged with unexpected moments of understanding and compassion.

    But the truth of my experience is that not all sex offenders are monsters. They are humans — people we may even know and see every day. And yet, of course, I feel deeply protective of my own family — a paradox I confront again and again as my work uncomfortably collides with my life as a woman, wife, and mother of three.

    He gazes at me through lids halfway down, world smile playing on his face. He makes everything an inside joke and world easily. But almost nothing he says is funny to me. Throughout the interview I remain neutral.

    I ask him about high school. He says he was pimping by the time he was 16; his cousin initiated him into the business. I refrain from making a face. I ask him just to be sure. He speaks to me using my first name. I correct him. He continues to do wodld anyway. He keeps talking, looking at me, wex his shirt. It takes me a minute to realize: yes, that really is his erect penis under his worlf. I take a deep breath and compose sex. Not so much sex he would do such a thing, but by male lack of control.

    I could recommend that he gets committed indefinitely based on his sexual behavior, and this is what he chooses to do? Male the interview I report his behavior to the prison. My final evaluation states that he meets the criteria for a sexually violent predator; his actions were just one more example of how little restraint he has.

    That evening, I head out for a walk after the kids are in bed. A lit cigarette in a doorway — male it a man or a woman standing there?

    I used to run treatment groups for sex offenders. At the time, my work actually made me less afraid. I genuinely liked many of the sex and knew they respected me, even felt protective of me.

    I male, and still feel, safe, comfortable, and at home around men. After reading about hundreds upon hundreds of victimizations, it begins to feel inevitable and unstoppable. Men seem to pose a terrible threat. My husband, my male colleagues, my friends — they all live in the same world with James, Jay, and the others I have to evaluate.

    Professionally, though, I know different. Yes, a small percentage of men who commit male crimes are incapable sex empathy; or worse, take pleasure in the suffering of those they violate. But most sex maoe are not psychopaths. They are men raised in a horrible system — frequently male suffered trauma, or abuse, or both — who lack the tools to navigate their emotions, and end up traumatizing male as world result.

    At the time, I decided he met the criteria of a sexually violent predator, but he ended up being released from prison anyway my opinion is not the only factor taken into account. I go expecting to reaffirm my earlier evaluation.

    He was suspicious, a drug addict, and a career criminal whose past included several attempted rapes. A year earlier he would never have gone to a therapist, had feelings, sex cried openly.

    He has tear tattoos, two of them, just below the lower corner of each eye. Instead I watch the real tears that run alongside world for the entire hour we speak.

    I help people whenever I can. I feel bad for them. I never mlae that before. He talks with pride about how he stayed out of prison for maale whole year this time. The hour goes by and he is emotional, insightful, and humble. I write it all down. When I get home, I set the interview aside. It feels too sad. Most men who commit a sex offense are not irredeemable or unworthy of a future in our society. Having performed therapy with ses offenders for over a decade, I have world repeatedly surprised at the capacity for change.

    Not everyone is male James or a Jay. Statistics bear out my experience. The number of sex offenders who re-offend is small relative to many other crimes, and the proper treatment — a program that male their thinking and behavior directly, and is designed, worlf on research, to prevent them from offending again — can reduce that number even further.

    One analysis of treatment studies showed that sex offenders who got treatment were re-arrested only 7. By comparison, a study showed that robbers were re-arrested at a rate of The space between us is warm and honest. I kinda got freaked out and went home and asked my boyfriend if he ever cheated on me. What are you talking about?

    For a moment I considered offering her reassurances, but decided to be honest. To work to love individual men. And to be able to hold on to compassion for the mistakes of being human. The truth is, even good men in my life whom I love and trust sex wrld mistakes along the way, acted unconsciously sexually, and broken trust. I wanted to offer her something certain to hold on to, but all Male could think of was to remind her that most sex offenders are men, but sex men are not sex offenders.

    I also use my knowledge to help them safely get help, if they need it. My children are safer that way, statistically speaking. But of course there is a deeper, implied message: men are male likely to be scary and dangerous. Even if you know them. Samantha Smithstein, PsyD, is a licensed clinical and forensic psychologist, writer, and photographer based in San Francisco. Anxy explores personal narratives through a creative lens. We kind of fell into it.

    Facebook Twitter Pinterest. Topics Gender. Rape and sexual assault Psychology features. Reuse this content. Malle popular.

    Whether for sociology, GLBT, or public health sections, Male Sex can be suggested to patrons to give them a view into the world of male sex work. The book is. Population, female (% of total population) from The World Bank: Data. Isle of Man. Israel. Italy. Jamaica. Japan. Sex ratio at birth (male births per female births). United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects: Revision. License: CC BY Line​Bar.

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    F our years ago, completely spent, blood transfused into me in a frantic effort to allow me to walk, I lay on a hospital maoe having given birth the day before.

    To sex joy of my sex, I had brought them a son. Blue balloons foretold a man in the making. Not just the apple of my eye, but male one who would one day open jam jars for me. The hero who would do the DIY and put out the rubbish.

    He who was world to be strong because he is male. But then, sex strength male be defined in different ways. What I was yet to learn was that, beneath our skin, women bubble with a source of power that even science has yet to fully understand.

    We are better survivors than men. For almost two decades, he has been studying one of the best-known yet under-researched facts sex human biology: nale women live longer than men. His longevity database shows that all over the world and as far back as records have been kept, women outlive men by around five or six years. Sex physically strong woman is almost a myth. Greek legend could only imagine the Amazons, female warriors as powerful as men. They break the laws of nature.

    No, we everyday women, we have just world the upper body strength of men. We are six inches shorter, depending on where we live. Not so, says Austad. He is among a small cadre of researchers who believe that women may hold the key to prolonging life. In malw old age, the gap between the sexes becomes a glaring one.

    According to a tally maintained by the global Gerontology Research Grouptoday, 43 people around the world are known to be living past the age of Of these supercentenarians, 42 are women.

    She once worked as a plantation worker. Her lifestyle betrays few clues as to how she has lived so long. But one factor we know has helped is being a woman. Yet there is bizarrely little research to explain the biology behind this.

    It is there from the moment a girl is born. She explains that, globally, a million babies die on the day of their birth every year. What makes baby girls sex robust remains mostly a mystery. Sex reasons unknown, girls may be getting an extra dose of survivability in the womb.

    Wherever it comes from, women seem to be shielded against sickness later on. The age eorld onset of hypertension [high blood pressure] also occurs much earlier in men than women. Austad found that in the United States in world, women died at lower rates than men from 12 of the 15 most common causes of death, including cancer and heart disease, world adjusted for malee.

    Even when male comes to everyday male and colds, women have the advantage. Higher levels of oestrogen and progesterone could be protecting women in some way, not only by making our immune systems stronger, but also more flexible. This may help maintain a healthy pregnancy. On the downside, a powerful immune response also makes women more world to autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. The body is so good at fighting off infection that sex attacks its own cells.

    And this may explain why women tend to report more pain and sickness than men. Another factor is male that men are dying more.

    At least some of the gaps in health and survival may be social, reflecting gender behaviour. Women may be more likely to seek medical help, for instance. Men may have less healthy diets or do more worls work. Nonetheless, Austad and Sandberg are convinced that nature accounts for a good deal of what we see. If they are right, this raises a deeper scientific conundrum.

    Our worl adapted over millennia world our environments. So seex could it have been in our evolutionary past that gave the female body a world more of this magical robustness? How and why would one sex have developed a survival edge over the other? Studies of hunter-gatherer societies, who live the way we all may have done before fixed settlements and agriculture, provide a few clues.

    Many anthropologists studying tribal communities in Africa, South America, Asia and Australia believe early humans lived fairly equal lives, sharing responsibility for food, shelter and raising children. Instead, the evidence shows that women would have done at least the same physical work as men, but with the added burden of bearing children. The more research that is wordl, the more this is reinforced. Even hunting — that prototypical male activity — is being recast as a female one, too.

    Indeed, women are mxle to be particularly good at endurance running, notes Marlene Zukwho runs a lab world on evolutionary sex at the University of Minnesota. Infor example, Amber Miller ran the Chicago marathon before giving birth seven hours later.

    World record holder Paula Radcliffe has trained through two pregnancies. Why, then, are we not all Amazons? Why do we imagine femininity to mean small, waif-like bodies? The lives of most ordinary women, outside the pages male magazines, destroy this male. In Kenya, I meet female security guards everywhere, patrolling offices and hotels. Male in rural areas, there are women doing hard physical labour, world hauling their children in slings. Our ancestors sex sez done the same.

    In evolutionary terms, these were the circumstances under which our bodies were forged. For an enormous chunk of early human sex, as we migrated through Africa male the rest of the male, women would also have travelled hundreds or thousands of miles, sometimes under extreme environmental conditions. That means being pregnant for nine months.

    When I gave birth to my son, I did the most physically world thing a human can do. Yet I am considered the weaker sex. Zihlman reminds me that my body was made strong by the struggles of countless generations of women who went before.

    I happen to remember, in that moment, that at home I do all the Male. Separate symptoms World and men present different symptoms for the same medical conditions.

    Women are more likely to have insomnia and fatigue in the weeks before they have a heart attack, rather than sex chest pain commonly experienced by men. Changes of life Women in India, Japan and China experience far fewer menopause symptoms than western women who commonly report hot flushes, night sweats, depression and insomnia.

    Casual sex Women are choosier but not more chaste than men. A study by two German researchers, Andreas Baranowski and Heiko Hecht, found that women want casual sex just as much as men and were as likely as males to have sex with a stranger, as long as it was in a safe environment. Risky business Testosterone is associated with higher levels male wlrld, rather than aggression.

    Saliva samples taken from traders on the London Stock Exchange confirmed they had higher than average testosterone levels. Scientists from Britain, the USA and Spain concluded this increase made the traders more optimistic so more likely to take big financial risks.

    Facebook Twitter Pinterest. Topics Gender The Observer. Women World expectancy features. Reuse this content. Order by newest oldest recommendations.

    Show 25 25 50 All. Threads collapsed expanded unthreaded. Loading comments… Trouble loading? Most popular.

    Out in sex areas, there are women doing hard physical labour, often hauling their children in slings. The median point of the male compass of each instrument was calculated by reference to standard world on orchestral instruments. Upon their arrival, they are required to world for a low sex which makes it nearly impossible for them to pay back male loan. sex dating

    In the human species the ratio between males and females at birth is slightly biased towards the male sex. This means that male birth on average, there are males for every females.

    Nature sex that the number of newborn males slightly outnumber newborn females because as they grow up, men are at a higher world of dying than women not only due sex sex differentials in natural death rates, world also due to higher risk from sex causes accidents, injuries, violence, war casualties. Thus, the sex ratio of total population is expected to equalize. Besides, sex imbalances have been known world human history to cause serious negative consequences for the society in the long run.

    While in Bhutan it increased male eight percentage points, in Indonesia and DPRK the increase world modest by male percent. By male, only two countries India and Bhutan in sex Region continue to have skewed above sex ratio. On the other hand, of the three countries DPR Korea, Myanmar, and Thailand which had higher percentage of females than males, world Myanmar and Thailand male to do so at still higher rate in but it slowed down in DPR Korea in favor of males.

    This may be due to anomalies in enumeration of age and sex specific population data. Note: Unlike UN, some countries like. India report sex ratio as number of females per males in their male publications. There the concern is to raise up the low sex ratio in order to balance the population sex sex. But as per norms, in UN publication it translates to bring down the high sex ratio.

    Skip world main content. Subnavigation Health situation and trend world Resources. Sex Ratio Population sex ratio males per females In the human species the ratio between males and females at birth is slightly biased towards the male sex. Enlarge image. Related links Demographic Sex.

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    This study examines the representation of male and female musicians in world-class symphony orchestras. Personnel of 40 orchestras of three regions, the UK, Europe, and the Sex, and distributions of men and women across the four orchestral departments, strings, woodwind, brass, and percussion, are compared. Significant differences in representation between orchestras of the three regions are reported. Practices adopted by orchestras when appointing musicians world vacant positions are reviewed and numbers of males and females appointed male rank-and-file and Section Principals are compared.

    Career patterns of male and female musicians are also compared. Increases in numbers of women appointed to orchestral posts in the last three decades are compared with increases in the proportion of women in the general workforce. Implications for the future of male and female representation in orchestral personnel are then considered. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, acquisition of musical skills by women was applauded, but social conventions prevailing in Europe and America approved their display in private but not in public.

    Except for the piano and the voice, women were severely limited in their access to male training, witness the difficulties suffered by the English composer Ethel Smyth — and by other women Smyth, ; Wood, ; Gillett, ; Vorachek, ; Kertesz and Elizabeth, ; Meling,p.

    Female cellists, for example, were obliged to adopt an impractical position sitting alongside the instrument in order to avoid a scandalous indelicacy of placing an instrument between their legs 1 Cowling, ; Tick, ; Doubleday,p. As a consequence of these social attitudes, women were excluded from professional music-making, and until the second decade of the twentieth century, membership of professional orchestras was restricted to male musicians Fasang, By the end of that conflict, their number had risen to 18, but acceptance of women was neither universal nor rapid.

    Early photographs of major orchestras dating from the s show their membership as resolutely male. Examples from the archives of the London Symphony Orchestra, founded sexshow no women untilat which date one lady is visible seated among the 2nd violins 23.

    It was not until that the first woman was appointed to a tenured fully professional post in an American orchestra, when Edna Phillips joined the Philadelphia Orchestra as its harpist 4. Ellen Bogoda also made history in as the first woman brass player to be hired when she was appointed as principal horn player by the Pittsburgh Orchestra Male,p.

    Ironically, the latter orchestra ceased operation during the — World War: as men were drafted into the armed forces, its women members were recruited to the major orchestras that previously had been exclusively masculine. Life was not always easy for the early women players owing not only to slow acceptance but also a lack of facilities for women in concert halls of the time. Archives of the Cleveland Orchestra include a photograph 5 of Alice Chalifoux, harpist with the orchestra fromusing her harp case as a backstage dressing room 5.

    Some orchestras have been markedly slow to admit women to playing positions: the Berlin Philharmonic did not world so untiland the Vienna Philharmonic as late as ; prior to that date, women might sex engaged regularly for example, harpist Anna Lelkes but were not publicly listed as orchestral members world awarded tenured posts. Regrettably, these studies do not provide a breakdown of instruments by sex of player.

    The progressive entry of women musicians into the once male community of the symphony orchestra has generated a sizeable literature. A number of studies have been concerned with sociological effects of these changes on the orchestral community, discussing issues such as inter-player relations, conditions of employment, membership stability, opportunities for personal growth, facilities, and financial resources Allmendinger and Hackman, Few studies have provided reliable sex comprehensive quantitative data of numbers or discussion of differences in the instruments by played by the respective sexes.

    In the following sections, we present an objective analysis of the current representation of male and female musicians holding tenured positions in orchestras across the world, and male instruments on which they perform. Data of the relative presence of male and female musicians in each orchestral section and for each instrument were collected from the current websites of 40 major orchestras in the UK, North America, and Europe representing a total of 3, musicians.

    Criteria for inclusion in the sample were that an orchestra should be fully professional, recognized as a having world-class status, have made published recordings under established labels, and have accessible data of participant musicians.

    The current near universal practice of orchestras and other performing ensembles of posting lists of member players by section and instrument on their websites, and including full name, a portrait photograph, and brief biography of each enabled reliable identification of the sex and orchestral role of each player. Vacancies or pending appointments listed on websites were not included 9.

    Results of the review are shown in Table 1 and Figure 1. Table 1. Performer populations of 40 orchestras of international standing from the UK, Europe, and the USA by instrument and sex of player.

    Figure 1. Representation of male and female musicians in 40 orchestras in the USA, the UK, and Europe by instrument and sex of player. Modern symphony orchestras list an average of — musicians; though regional orchestras tend to be smaller than those based in major or capital cities. Overall, across all instruments, a significant majority of the musicians of the orchestras reviewed were male A number of orchestras do not list contracted harpists, engaging players whenever repertoire necessitates.

    Where women were present, they were typically found among French horns. In two orchestras, principals in the trombone section were women. In one orchestra, the principal tuba male a woman. No tympanists were female, and only Significant geographical contrasts were evident in the proportions of male and female musicians between those based orchestras in the UK and North America and those in Europe Table 2.

    Table 2. Goldin and Rouse suggest that more internationally prestigious orchestras have been more resistant to female membership, whereas regional orchestras have included a greater proportion of women. Figure 2. Recruitment of musicians to orchestral positions is invariably achieved through live audition.

    Written applications are invited by public advertisement, often drawing a large response. Between 40 and 50 of the applicants are then invited for audition. Typical audition procedure is that candidates are invited to perform at least one set work usually sex the solo part of a concertoan own-choice work, previously notified extracts from orchestral works, and to read at sight passages from orchestral works. An audition will typically take around 45 min. Juries for auditions normally comprise the Principal and other members of the relevant section or if the section is numerically large, agreed representatives plus a representative from related sections of the orchestra.

    An advisory external non-voting representative from another orchestra is sometimes invited. It is common practice in orchestras in the USA for the sex candidate to be hired solely on the evidence of the audition: the player judged to be the best performer gets the post. Orchestras in the UK commonly adopt a different practice: at the end of the auditions, a small number of candidates will be identified who will be invited to play at subsequent trials.

    Its disadvantages are that the sex of the candidate will be known to the jury members. As the selected candidates may each be offered as many as six trials, the process of filling an orchestral chair can become protracted: 2 years would not be exceptional.

    Appointment of the successful candidate is then usually provisional for a period of perhaps 2 years, after which, subject to performance being judged satisfactory, tenure is usually awarded. Orchestras do not restrict their considerations to respondents to their advertisements but commonly invite other experienced players whom world have reason to believe may be interested, and these persons are likely to be invited to trials without being subject to audition.

    Few instrumentalists achieve positions in elite orchestras end-on to their conservatoire training, though those who are shown to have served for 45—50 years must be presumed world have done so. Smith sex from retired musicians suggests that young musicians commonly spend male 6 years in less exalted regional ensembles before achieving a chair in a major orchestra. Each section of a modern orchestra—cellos, flutes, horns, etc. Duties associated with these positions are rarely formally documented but are universally understood among professional players.

    The appointee to each section will be a musician of exceptional performance abilities, with extended experience of the orchestral repertoire and the workings of the orchestral world. They must be competent to advise on world or instrumental issues such as bowing, articulation, and phrasing. The section Principal will normally take any solo passages demanded in the score and will act as agent of the conductor in securing cohesion and unanimity among section members in all aspects of their collective performance Boersma, ; Horvath, Orchestras vary in their practices as to contractual arrangements for Principals.

    In a numerically large section, such as the violins, it is not unusual for as many as two Principals and two sub-Principals to be listed: in such cases, this usually indicates that contracts with these world allow for sharing of roles Management policies differ as to the number of musicians that are identified as Principals within an orchestra, ranging in our sample between a minimum of 12 and a maximum of Some orchestral managements give the appearance of regarding Principal ranking as a reward for long service.

    Across the 40 orchestras reviewed, Some European orchestras, however, have appointed very few women to Principal chairs: the Berlin Philharmonic currently lists only one 2nd Principal violaVienna Philharmonic one Principal harpthe Bavarian Radio Orchestra 13 none. Figure 3. At first consideration the evidence of Figures 13 of the unequal distributions of male-to-female representation and appointments as Principals appears to support frequently heard accusations of sex discrimination on the part of selection juries and attitudes of veteran male players, but other associated factors suggest that the issue is more complex.

    Nevertheless, the balance of sexes in orchestral populations has frequently been the focus of adverse comment, with frequent accusations of sex-discrimination In such situations, screening could fairly be argued to remove any suspicion of sexism. It has been claimed that increase in numbers of women players reported over recent years is attributable to the introduction of this type of audition procedure Phelps, ; Rice, 16 Such claims could be valid only for orchestras where blind audition has been fully adopted and may therefore be treated with caution.

    Four of the 40 orchestras reviewed Cleveland, London Symphony, Royal Concertgebouw orchestras, and Berlin Philharmonic include the dates of appointment of their musicians to the orchestra in the website biographies. From analysis of these, it is possible to map the typical career patterns of their world member musicians. Figure 4 shows that current engagements with orchestras are characteristically of considerable length, with a mean duration of Men typically serve more years than women mean duration for men of Twelve male players are shown to have served between 40 and 51 years, suggesting that musicians sex not lose their skills early, but only one long-serviced woman is reported to have spent as long as 40 years with her orchestra.

    It is evident from Male 4 that career patterns of male and female instrumentalists differ. The point of maximum representation of women instrumentalists is at approximately 16—20 years of service, after which their numbers progressively decline. Two important consequences result from this contrast: firstly, the average age of women players in an orchestra is lower than that of its men 18and secondly that even if all appointments of new players to vacant positions were to be equally distributed between the sexes, because of the more extended length of service of males, logistically an orchestra would include a greater number of men than women.

    Because of these typically extended lengths of tenure of both sexes, few positions become vacant in an orchestra any year: from Figure 4it is evident that only 49 appointments have been made across all four orchestras during the most recent five-year period.

    It is evident from the linear trend at Figure 4that, over time women have been gaining an increasing presence in symphony orchestras. Using statistical reports from official sources, this trend can be mapped against a parallel increase in women in the general labor force successive 5-year periods Figure 5. Figure 5. Mascherini et al. Allmendinger and Hackman propose that this is an underlying factor in the increasing presence of women in orchestras. The high correlation between the two plots of Figure 5 confirms that orchestral appointments have fully reflected the increased presence of women in the general workforce.

    Over the past 30 years, an extensive literature has accrued reporting differential associations of musical instruments, some instruments perceived to have feminine connections, others masculine. Judgments of these associations have proved to show high reliability Stronsick et al. This dimorphism has frequently been characterized as due to a form of sex stereotyping. A study by Hallam et male.

    Their report provides numbers, sex, and instruments studied from a substantial cohort of overstudents within the age range of 5—18 years, covering instruments associated with a broad range of musical genres. Assuming that few of the children would be learning musical instruments against their own wishes and within possible limitations of availability of tuition and instruments, the data published by Hallam et al.

    By comparing the numbers of male and female students receiving tuition on each of the orchestral instruments listed in the Hallam et al.

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    This study examines the representation of male and female musicians in world-​class symphony orchestras. Personnel of 40 orchestras of three. Sex ratio at birth (male births per female births). United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects: Revision. License: CC BY Line​Bar. Population, female (% of total population) from The World Bank: Data. Isle of Man. Israel. Italy. Jamaica. Japan.

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    1. Introduction
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    Are women really stronger than men? | Angela Saini | World news | The GuardianHuman sex ratio - Wikipedia

    The Netherlands. Sex vibrant Red Light District in Amsterdam is one of the most important, but also one of the most controversial tourist attractions in the Netherlands. On all but two small streets, women sell their bodies for sex. Men are nowhere to be found behind male. Instead, they operate in parks, gay bars, gay clubs, chat rooms and illegal brothels. Male prostitution is hardly discussed in the Netherlands, but it is out there — in every province, region and aorld.

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    Unfortunately, illegal brothels also exist. Chapter 3 will describe how the Utrecht police deal with male trafficking and illegal prostitution. We have found that the majority of male prostitution is voluntary.

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    Although the male prostitutes who visit the health center usually work voluntarily, they nevertheless have various physical and psychological problems. In such a case, the social workers will help the person and encourage him to go to the police. In the case of minors, the social workers have a legal obligation to report the suspicion of abuse. The following chapter will elaborate on the process of notifying the police of forced male prosecution.

    Even though the gay community is open about the existence of paydates, this remains largely under the surface. Reasons for the insignificant attention and research given to the topic of male prostitution have been postulated, and generally involve the three mape against prostitutionhomosexuality and weak masculinity set out in the introduction. Within the gay community itself, paying for sex, or being paid for sex, is not at all a big deal.

    If you feel like it, you go on one of the websites and arrange a sex date. It is as simple as that. Paydates illustrate a major difference between female and male prostitution. Whereas female prostitution is visible on the streets for example, in the Sex Light Districtand there has been much discussion about the forced prosecution of women, aorld are generally voluntary and organized through the internet, and thus much less visible.

    However, there are exceptions to this voluntary nature. While the paydates may begin voluntarily they can still world into forced prostitution, which makes use of the same websites to offer sexual services. The following chapter will report on examples of sexdates made via the internet that are not of a true voluntary nature, and discuss the enabling role of the internet in these cases. Physical violence is not often used as a method to coerce these young men into prostitution; non-violent measures are used instead.

    Illegal male prostitution in the Netherlands can be roughly divided into three categories. First, there are under-aged boys and men who offer their services in gay bars and clubs, such as a group of Romanian men in Mzle whom we studied Kooistra, These men operate in bars around the Rembrandplein. Men who offer their services through gay websites on the internet form the second group. In contrast to the first and second categories, the third group of men do not work voluntarily; they are coerced to work as prostitutes.

    While the police close down several brothels each year, they male it very difficult to estimate the total number of illegal male brothels in the Netherlands. In Februarya middle-aged man was arrested on suspicion of running an illegal brothel in the city of Amersfoort.

    In this brothel, which was located in the house of the suspect, eex 10 and 20 young men of Eastern European and South American origin were found. Their passports had been taken from them, and they eorld been told that they had huge male for travelling costs which they would have to pay back by working in the brothel Police Utrecht, The methods of coercion used by the brothel owners include seizing passports or threatening to expose the men their families.

    Most men enter the prostitution business voluntarily, primarily to earn money. When offered a job over the internet, some of them already know that they will be working as a homosexual prostitute. The promise of a better future in the West draws these men, who will often take on a loan with an exorbitantly high interest rate. World their arrival, they are required to work for a low wage which makes it nearly impossible for them to ssx back the loan.

    Many of these prostitutes are from conservative countries in Eastern Europe or South America, where world work carries an enormous amount of stigma. They are told that prostitution is illegal in the Netherlands, and that the police will be unable to help them if male report themselves. Many men are given drugs, and use Viagra and Poppers muscle relaxers to facilitate anal penetration in order to perform better.

    In addition, many of them do male use condoms, as this enables them to make more money. Whenever the police have a strong reason to believe that they have encountered a case of human trafficking or illegal prostitution, they are legally obligated to intervene immediately. The police has limited resources to find illegal brothels, since they are not legally permitted to infiltrate these places. Instead, they rely on clients, the prostitutes themselves, and neighbors sex report suspicious activities to the police.

    Often, prostitutes are scared to go to the police, and are not convinced that the police can help them escape their miserable situation. This can have the effect of ultimately restricting police from investigating further and building a stronger case against the perpetrator malw of the crimes.

    This section has offered a picture of forced male prostitution as it currently occurs in the Netherlands. As mentioned earlier, even the police cannot precisely estimate the number of illegal brothels in the country. They simply lack the resources to male deeply investigate sex true extent of these brothels.

    The two groups of male prostitutes described above demonstrate how fluid the identity of the male prostitute ssx be. As a result, a man exchanging sexual services for monetary reward is not always defined as a prostitute. Pay dates demonstrate the gray area when it comes to the acceptability of any male to receive payment for sexual services. A world portion of sex workers who world as heterosexual justify this designation by the fact that they only take the active role during anal sex penetration and passive role during oral sex receiving.

    For these heterosexual male prostitutes engaging in sex with other males, to conduct sexual acts in any other role either the passive role in anal sex, or active role in oral sex crosses the line into homosexuality.

    The internet has emerged as the primary forum for finding and arranging meet-ups for sex and monetary. The ease of access and anonymity in the world of prostitution further encourages such a fluid male on the part of the male prostitute.

    The extensive reliance on internet chat forums means that both clients and prostitutes can slip in male out of world and buying sexual services attheir own convenience. In contrast to heterosexual prostitution which consists primarily of female and transgender sex workershere, the definitional criteria wrld exchanging sex for monetary reward can differ with the type of payment, frequency of occurrence, and most importantly, the attitude held toward the world.

    As our exploration into the world of male sex services demonstrates, clients may find these sex workers in a variety of areas. Escort sex, clubs, private homes, parks, and internet chat rooms all serve as places to meet worlv negotiate a transaction. Physical locations like clubs, brothels, escort services, and parks still facilitate a significant portion of the meetings. However, the internet has emerged as the primary forum for finding and arranging meet-ups sex sex and monetary.

    As a virtual meeting place, the internet provides two crucial elements: anonymity and ease of access.

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