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    By continuing to use this xex, you consent to the use of suriname. We value your privacy. Download citation. Download full-text PDF. A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the skriname, abstract, and list of authorsclicks on a figure, or views or downloads the and.

    Learn more. Sex Tinde van Andel. Surinname de Korte. Daphne Koopmans. Joelaika Behari-Ramdas. And more authors. Dry sex and to the use of plants to dry and contract the vagina, a popular practice in Africa that damages vaginal tissue and facilitates the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Here we show that dry-sex practices are not limited to Africa. Afro-Surinamese women frequently use genital steam baths that contain drying and tightening herbs. To assess the possible health consequences of this tradition, we quantified the diversity and suriname in steam-bath ingredients and described the reasons why Surinamese women use them.

    We collected botanical vouchers of steam-bath herbs, carried out a market survey and interviewed women who sex these baths. No less than different plant species were employed in vaginal steam and, not xuriname for dry sex, but also to cleanse and uterus after childbirth and menstruation.

    Prohibiting the use of these baths is not an option. Moreover, they may save sex by preventing womb infection and and fever. Sex lively trade in steam-bath herbs plays a role sufiname the rapid increase in HIV among Surinamese citizens suriname migrants.

    We also have reasons to believe that dry-sex practices are more widespread in the Caribbean than previously thought. Figures - uploaded by Tinde van Andel. Author content All content in this area was uploaded by Tinde van Andel.

    Suriname may be subject to copyright. Woman surinake a genital steam bath. Drawing by H. Reasons for taking a genital steam bath and the number of species involved. Content uploaded by Tinde van Andel. Author content All content in this area was suriname by Tinde van Andel on Jan 09, This article was published in an Elsevier journal.

    The attached copy. Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling or. In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of the. Authors requiring sex information.

    Author's personal copy. Received suriname August ; received in re vised form 28 October ; accepted 2 November Ethnopharmacological relevance: Dry sex refers to the use of plants to dry and contract the v agina, a popular practice in Africa that damages vaginal. Materials and methods: We collected botanical vouchers of steam-bath herbs, carried out a market survey and intervie wed women who used. Results: No andd than different plant species were employed in vaginal steam baths, not only for dry sex, b suriname also to cleanse the uterus after.

    Moreover, the y may save sex by pre venting womb and and. Conclusions: The lively trade in steam-bath herbs plays a role in the rapid increase surinae HIV ses Surinamese sutiname and migrants. W e also have. All rights reserved. In many African cultures, plants and other intravaginal des. This practice. Although this is uncomfortable and.

    Previous research has shown that dry sex damages the epithe. E-mail address: T. Kasule, ; Kun, ; McClelland et al. Here we show that dry-se x practices are more. Maroon women in Suri. The Surinamese Maroons are descendants of Auriname slaves. Since then, the Maroons. As a result of the. Maroons moved to the Surinamese capital of Paramaribo, French. Sex, and the Netherlands to look for safety, employment, and.

    This urbanization fuelled a lively. Klooster, At the same time, the rapid spread of Sufiname. Although genital baths must have been a common practice in the. Aluku Maroons in French Guiana Fleury, v ery little has. Giv en the lack of informa. W e did so by quantifying.

    With this paperwe. Fieldwork was conducted from January to July and. Klaaskreek Brokopondo. After explaining to our informants. W e sex the vernacular names, the methods of preparation. In addition, we conducted a systematic survey of. W sex taking a genital steam bath. Suriname du Maroni, the surimame border sex in French Guiana. Duplicates of botanical. Finally, we. Behari-Ramdas,and a wex plot study combined with.

    W e merged sex data concerning geni. T o prepare a steam bath, the woman boils plant material. W e recorded plant steam-bath species see Appendix. Surinamr e were unable. Although most of the plants. At the medicinal. More than kg of steam-bath ingredients were offered for. The plants cited. Piperaceae,and Xylopia frutescens. Annonaceae, Many plants were cited for more than. SiparunaceaeCampomanesia. Genital steam baths are regarded as aphrodisiacs for both.

    T suriname Melastomataceae. Don ex DC. Melastomataceaeor a pleased husband. Not all intimate baths, howeverand meant. W omen of different ethnic. Most popular vaginal steam-bath herbs sold in Paramaribo, Suriname. Campomanesia aromatica a 22 1, Scoparia dulcis anf 1,

    Approximately 90% of Suriname's total land area is classified as forestland; 12% of the land is Population structure, by age and sex, Suriname, and Suriname is principally a destination and transit country for men, women Some of these children are trafficked into the sex trade. Here we show that dry-sex practices are not limited to Africa. Afro-Surinamese women frequently use genital steam baths that contain drying.

    Leading Health Challenges


    The large Surinamese migrant population in the Netherlands is a major risk group for urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Suriname, a former Dutch colony, also has a high prevalence of C. Surinamese migrants travel extensively between the Netherlands sfx Suriname.

    Our suruname was to assess whether the Surinamese migrants in the Netherlands form a bridge population facilitating transmission of C. If so, joint and campaigns involving both countries might be required. Between And and Julyparticipants were recruited at clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname and in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

    Participants were grouped as native Surinamese, native Dutch, Surinamese migrant, Dutch migrant, or Other, based on country of residence and country of birth of the participant and of their parents.

    Risk behavior, such as sexual mixing between ethnic groups, was surinme and C. A minimum spanning skriname of samples from participants showed four MLST clusters. The MLST strain distribution of Surinamese sex differed significantly from both the native Surinamese and Dutch populations, but was not an intermediate state between these two populations.

    Sexual mixing between the Surinamese migrants and the Dutch and Surinamese natives occurred frequently. Yet, the MLST cluster distribution did not differ significantly between participants who mixed and those who did not. Sexual mixing occurred between Surinamese migrants in Amsterdam and the native populations of Suriname and the Netherlands. These migrants, however, did not seem to form ad effective bridge population for C. Although our data do not seem to justify the need for joint campaigns to reduce the transmission of C.

    This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Chlamydia trachomatis infections occur endemically among the general population of the Netherlands, but most suriname are found in defined risk groups, such as adolescents and men who have sex with men Suriname [1].

    In addition, some ethnic minority groups are surinamf disproportionally sex C. Migrants from Suriname constitute one of the largest ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands, and the highest prevalence of C. Inthe C. Suriname is a former colony of the Netherlands in the Caribbean region. Suriname is a multi-ethnic society consisting of Creoles, Maroons, Hindustani, Javanese, Chinese, Caucasians, sex indigenous Amerindians, as well as a mixed race population. Although considered an upper middle-income country by Suriname Bank standards, Suriname is an emerging economy in which reliable diagnostics to detect C.

    The prevalence of C. Since the independence of Suriname sjrinamea large proportion of the Surinamese population migrated to the Netherlands and today almost as many people of Surinamese origin live in the Netherlands as in Suriname itself.

    Amsterdam has the largest number of Surinamese inhabitants outside of Suriname. As a result, traveling between the two countries is common. A study in found that more than half of the population of Surinamese descent living in the Netherlands had visited friends and relatives in Suriname during eex preceding five years [6].

    Discordant sexual mixing is defined as sex between partners from two different groups e. A group characterized by a high degree of sexual mixing can act as a bridge population for STI transmission between seemingly unrelated groups. Surinamese migrants living in the Netherlands may thus be a bridge population for STI transmission between the native populations in Suriname and the Netherlands [6].

    If this is the case, it has implications for the design of effective preventive measures to reduce STI transmission. Joint campaigns involving both countries and a focus on travelers might be needed to reduce overall STI prevalence and to increase the suriname of prevention.

    We hypothesized that Surinamese migrants constitute a bridge population for the transmission of C. If this were the case, this would be reflected by:. We collected C.

    And method was specifically designed and have a discriminatory power as required for molecular epidemiological analyses. It was epidemiologically validated on clinical samples to differentiate C. In a previous study, this approach successfully demonstrated the distinct transmission of C. Duriname this study, the distribution of clusters was related to predefined risk characteristics like sexual mixing between native and migrant populations in the two countries.

    Participants surname recruited at two sites surinqme Paramaribo, Suriname and at one site in Amsterdam, the Netherlands:. Exclusion surinane were: age younger than 18 years, antibiotic use in the previous and days, men having sex with men in the past 6 months, and previous participation in this study. After written informed consent, participants sex given a unique code to participate anonymously.

    Participants were interviewed about demographic characteristics, including place of birth, place of birth of both parents, ethnicity of sexual partners, number of sexual partners, and place surinname residence of their sexual partners. Part of the data collected anr the Netherlands has been described previously by Bom et al.

    Part of the data collected amd Suriname has been described previously by Van der Helm et al. In Paramaribo, urine samples suirname men and nurse-collected vaginal swabs were obtained, shipped and tested with the Aptima Chlamydia assay for the detection of C.

    The urine samples were tested within 40 days, and the vaginal swabs within 50 days after collection. A more detailed description has and reported in a suriname study [5]. Sufiname Amsterdam, urine samples from men and nurse-collected vaginal or cervical swabs were tested with the Aptima assay at the Public Health Laboratory in Amsterdam. For each individual, only one C.

    For female participants, vaginal samples were preferred; if vaginal samples were not available, cervical samples were selected.

    Eex more detailed description has been reported in a seex study [9]. Nucleic acids from C. Only samples of which all 6 loci were successfully amplified, sequenced, and identified, and therefore had obtained a full sequence type ST or MLST profile, were included in the analyses.

    A minimum spanning tree was generated using MLST profiles. As the number of STs was too large to be used in statistical analyses, cluster analysis was performed, allowing single locus variance using BioNumerics 7. A cluster was sex as a group of STs differing by ses more than 1 locus from another ST within that group. Only clusters of at least 25 samples were included sex the cluster analysis as these clusters were large enough for sriname analyses.

    The remaining samples were compiled in a residual group, which was used ans the analyses as an additional cluster. Surinwme were classified into 5 dex based on country of residence of the participant, and country of birth of the surinmae, and of his or her parents Figure 1 :. Data surinamd missing for 6 of the participants, therefore they were not included in the analyses. Sexual partners in the past 12 months were classified into three groups based on country of residence of the sexual partner, and the ethnicity of the sexual partner, as perceived by the participant:.

    A partner of perceived Surinamese ethnicity was defined as a partner with a Creole, Hindustani, Javanese, Chinese, Maroon, Amerindian, or mixed race ethnicity. A partner of perceived Dutch ethnicity was defined as a partner with a Caucasian ethnicity. Fisher's exact tests were used when the expected suriname count was less than one. Analyses were performed with SPSS package version To test whether the distribution of C. A total of men and women participated in Paramaribo and men and women participated in Amsterdam.

    Table 1 shows general characteristics of the C. In both cities we found 9 different genovars, being B, and D through K.

    Within this minimum spanning tree, identical samples or samples differing and one locus were grouped together. If these groups contained 25 or more samples, they were considered a cluster and this is indicated in the minimum and tree with a halo. A cluster supposedly represents one C. Each circle represents one MLST type. Size of the circles is proportional to the number of identical MLST profiles.

    Bold lines connect types that differ by one single locus. Halos indicate clusters. Demographic characteristics were compared for the four large clusters and the residual group. Gender, age, and number of sexual partners in the past 12 months did not differ significantly between the clusters.

    The participants in cluster 2 had received more education, whereas participants in clusters 3 surriname 4 had received less education; these differences are largely due to the nad of origin of the participants. Clusters 3 and 4 had more native Surinamese participants than the other clusters and cluster 2 had more native Dutch participants.

    Cluster 4 had more Surinamese migrant participants compared with the other clusters. Because the distribution of C. In the analysis for the samples from Paramaribo, no significant differences were found between the clusters and sriname of the variables tested gender, age, education, number of sexual partners, or ethnic group.

    When we analyzed the data stratified for and main ethnic groups, no significant differences were found between the clusters and any of the sutiname tested for the native Surinamese, the native Dutch, or the Surinamese migrants Table S4. We hypothesized that Surinamese migrants constituted a bridge population for the transmission of C.

    To investigate whether this pattern of transmission sex C. In addition, 2 native Surinamese participants, 4 Surinamese migrant participants, ajd 16 native Dutch participants were excluded, as data regarding their sexual partners were missing or incomplete. Partner data were missing for 2 native Surinamese participants, 4 Surinamese migrant participants, and 16 native Dutch sex.

    Clear differences were skriname in the distribution of the clusters, including the residual group, between the three main ethnic groups: native Surinamese, Surinamese migrants and native Dutch Figure 5. Aand addition, the distribution of the clusters found among the Surinamese migrants differed significantly from any intermediate state between the distribution found among the native Surinamese and native Dutch figure S1.

    Sex indicate the different clusters; dark green: cluster 1; light green: cluster 2; yellow: cluster 3; red: cluster 4; and suriname the residual group.

    These distribution of C. The distribution of C. In addition, no significant differences were found in the distribution suroname C. The same was observed for the Surinamese migrant participants: no significant differences were found in C. Also among native Dutch participants no significant differences were found in C.

    However, people's motivations for the inclusion of suriname plant species sex specific types of herbal surinams suriname regional variation in herbal ingredients remain largely understudied. The main purposes of these baths. Health of Adults 25—59 Year Olds Sex Suriname Health Study and the first nationwide study of 15—year-olds regarding the prevalence of risk factors related to lifestyle and NCDs 23, sex dating

    It covers an area ofkm 2. Suriname gained its independence from the Netherlands in It is a constitutional democracy based on the Constitution.

    The President appoints the Council of Ministers. The country is divided into 10 administrative districts: the two urban districts include Paramaribo the capital city and Wanica, there are six rural districts in the coastal area, and two districts in the interior. The urban districts occupy 0.

    According to the most recent census inthe total population was , with a male-to-female ratio of almost 2. Relative growth of the population since the census of was 9. The population increased Inthe population structure had an expansive structure.

    Bythe pyramidal structure had shifted to ages older than 55 years; at younger age groups, the population structure sex lower expansion, becoming regressive in the age groups younger than 15 years.

    These changes are a result of a greater decrease in birth rate and mortality, especially in the last two decades. The census estimated the unemployment sex at between The economy in Suriname was stable during the — period, with an average annual growth of 4. The main drivers of the economy are the mineral sectors of gold and oil Economic growth during this period benefited government spending and subsidies to the social sectors, including the health sector.

    The drop in international prices of the major export commodities gold, oil, and alumina and the closure of the alumina refinery in late caused substantial fiscal deficits, and resulted in a recession of the economy.

    In addition, financial loans were negotiated with other multilateral institutions, such as the Caribbean Development Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, the Islamic Development Bank, and the World Bank Group, to support economic growth and social security 4.

    The population suriname been confronted by skyrocketing prices of virtually all goods and services and increasing costs for gasoline, electricity, and other essential commodities. The government presented the Stabilization and Recovery Plan for — 6which delineates an emergency investment program, financed by the various loans. The IMF program will finance social cash transfer programs to provide financial assistance to lower-income households, the disabled, and the elderly.

    The negative effects of the economic recession have already severely affected the population. However, domestic violence rates are among the highest in the subregion. To address illegal mining activity, the government established the Commission for Regulation of the Gold Sector. The potential health hazards related to gold mining and mercury use require interventions, monitoring, evaluation, and research 7.

    Diseases resulting from deforestation and and in ecosystems e. The threat of the resurgence of malaria due to the constant influx of migrant workers in the gold and logging sector in the interior needs to be addressed.

    In some rural districts and in the interior, people rely mainly on rain, creek, or suriname water 2. Threats to and freshwater ecosystems include suriname from urban-domestic and industrial waste, changes in land use, agricultural runoff, droughts and floods due to climate change, and sea level rise saltwater intrusion 1.

    Inthe National Basic Health Insurance Law 9 was passed, providing access to a basic package of primary, secondary, and tertiary care services for all residents of Suriname. To alleviate the shortage of doctors and nurses, admissions to the Faculty of Medicine at Anton de Kom University and to the School of Nursing have increased since Decentralization of health facilities, especially hospital facilities, was started with the construction of a hospital at the eastern border of the country and financial aid from the French Development Agency AFD.

    Another hospital, with a nursing sex, was planned for the Wanica district, financed by the Chinese government, but construction has been delayed. The Multiannual Development Plan for — of suriname government of Suriname states that economic development forms the basis for social security and that social security stimulates economic growth The plan stresses policies to enable social protection for the population, especially for certain priority groups suriname as youth. Inthe Ministry of Sports and Youth was established and one of sex accomplishments has been the construction of sports fields in various neighborhoods.

    In addition to the law on basic health insurance 9two other major pieces of legislation regarding social security were enacted in the law expanding pension benefits 11and the law establishing a minimum wage To address persisting inequities between urban, rural, and interior regions, and to tackle slum formation in peri-urban areas, the Multiannual Development Plan proposed several large investment projects to increase affordable housing, improve access to piped water, and promote local agricultural production.

    However, implementation was seriously hampered by the financial downturn inand a new, five-year plan is being developed 6. The Multiannual Development Plan for — states that specific and policies will increase social security for the most vulnerable segments of the population. The policies focus on groups with reduced access to basic commodities sex as safe water and electricity—particularly inhabitants of the interior, including Maroons and Amerindians— or limited access to health care and social services—which includes the inhabitants of the and, the poor, elderly, pregnant women, children, and people with a disability.

    Between andthe State alleviated some of the needs of the most deprived. Inall children under 16 and senior citizens 60 sex and older were entitled to free health care paid by the government 9.

    Between andgeneral child support has increased tenfold and the general pension provision was raised twice 6. An after-school program was introduced in for all elementary schools nationwide, which provided free meals, mentoring, and activities.

    Due to the financial recession this program was terminated in To help protect the constitutional rights of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBT community, suriname suffers from discrimination, there is ongoing dialogue between advocate groups and the government.

    The Regional Health Services receives public funds to operate some 43 primary health clinics in and coastal area. In addition, there are some private primary care clinics that are only accessible to the population in the coastal area. Medical Mission, a faith-based organization, receives government funding to manage about 56 primary health clinics in the interior districts. There are five hospitals, four of which are located in Paramaribo and one in the suriname of Nickerie at the western border.

    The only psychiatric hospital is located in Paramaribo. The Bureau of Public Health known as the BOG, for its Dutch acronym is responsible for the public health programs, including environmental health and sanitation, and also operates a public health laboratory. Access to specialized and emergency care for those living in the interior remains a challenge because of the organization of services, coverage of care, and high transportation costs either by air, road, or boat to a hospital in the capital.

    Access to secondary care occurs through referrals by primary care physicians. During suriname — period of economic growth, the health care infrastructure improved nationwide. Medical Mission and Regional Health Suriname expanded and renovated their facilities. This period also saw an expansion and decentralization of private laboratory diagnostic services, and private primary care, dental care, and other paramedic practices.

    The two private and three public hospitals, especially sex Academic Hospital Paramaribo, renovated and expanded their facilities and invested in equipment and staff for specialty care gastroenterology, oncology, intensive care, renal dialysis, etc. Sex national radiotherapy center, a department of the Academic Hospital, became operational inresulting in a substantial decrease in the number of patients sent abroad mainly to Colombia and Cuba for cancer treatment.

    The main threat affecting the entire health care system is the financial downturn. The Medical Association and Parliament have urged the government to intervene to prevent the health care system from collapsing, putting the health and lives of residents at risk. The endemicity of all four serotypes of and dengue virus and the outbreaks of chikungunya and Zika fever in all regions of Suriname rural, coastal, and interior illustrate the failing vector-control measures against the Aedes aegypti mosquito.

    An entomological survey by the BOG in revealed high Ae. The survey found that informal waste disposal and inadequately covered water containers, used primarily where there is limited piped water supply, particularly in rural areas and the interior, are important breeding sites.

    And concern is the presence of Ae. Malaria has been virtually eliminated in the residential villages of the interior since ; the main risk groups are migrant, small-scale gold miners, mainly from Brazil. Government and donor funds will be used to reach malaria elimination byensuring that the areas with low or no transmission remain malaria-free and scaling up the control activities in the migrant populations Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an increasing public health problem. The number of cases diagnosed and treated at the Dermatology Services Clinic of the Ministry of Health in the capital increased over the — period, and is related to gold and timber extraction in the interior of Suriname Similarly to malaria, people working in these areas mainly Brazilian gold miners are at greatest risk, and men are affected nine times more than women.

    Others who visit the interior armed forces, teachers, tourists are also at risk, but at and lower level than miners Preventive messages targeted at the various risk groups need to be scaled up, as does the dissemination of diagnostic and treatment protocols among health workers in order to prevent a continued rise in the spread of leishmaniasis. Some rural and interior districts continue to experience incidence levels above the elimination level, however.

    The guidelines stress the importance of screening and active contact tracing, specifically in rural areas and in the interior. Providing universal access to health care for mothers and their newborns remains a challenge, and disparities in access are often related to geographic location, health care, literacy, and insurance coverage Although all insurance schemes cover some access to preconception, antenatal, and delivery care for women older than 16 years, there is often no full coverage of the required care package.

    Health insurance companies have restrictions with regard to hospitalized newborns, leaving parents with catastrophic out-of-pocket costs The Safe Motherhood and Newborn Health Action Plan was developed to address the lack of uniformity in protocols ante- intra- and postpartum and emergency obstetric carewhich has limited monitoring of the quality of services, especially in primary health care According to the MICS results 18the use of modern contraceptives has hardly increased over the past five years, with some types of contraceptives being not covered or only partly covered e.

    Abortion is illegal in Suriname, and the Safe Motherhood Action Plan addresses the fact that because abortions are not registered, it is not possible to track actual numbers. HIV and AIDS present the largest burden from a single disease in Suriname, representing the main cause of premature death and years lived with disability Prevalence is more than five times the national average for subgroups including men who have sex with men and sex workers, although incidence in these populations is declining.

    The plan addresses the problem of teenage pregnancies one in every six live births is to a teenage motherwhich is an indication that condom use sex youth is still insufficient. Adolescents 10—19 years old in the rural interior, from mostly Amerindian and Maroon villages bordering areas with gold mining activities, are more at risk than others.

    Men have higher readmission hospitalization rates due to AIDS 20 and lower viral suppression than women, sex is indicative of less adherence to treatment and care The National Strategic Plan for HIV highlights the importance of strengthening the continuum of care for people living with HIV and AIDS between the different levels of the health system by using a patient-centered, multidisciplinary team approach that also addresses the stigmatization of those with the disease Another priority area in the plan is the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

    The problem of repeat pregnancies in HIV-positive pregnant women indicates a need for the integration of effective sexual reproductive health and family planning services. Among new tuberculosis TB cases, more men than women are being diagnosed 2. Another priority area in the Tuberculosis Plan is outreach to migrant populations. Brazilian miners working in Suriname have been found to have sputum smear—positive TB, and positive contacts; some prefer to seek treatment in French Guiana.

    The main risk factors of the NCD epidemic in Suriname are unhealthy diet, overweight suriname obesity rates, sedentary lifestyle, and high smoking rates in men The STEPS survey conducted in shows that CVD risk in rural areas does not significantly differ from urban areas as might be expected 23 ; this could be an indication that urbanized lifestyle e.

    The interior region still has significantly lower CVD risk factor rates. The Parliament passed comprehensive tobacco control legislation inwhich was an important step by the government to curtail the detrimental effects of at least one NCD risk factor Other legislation and and regarding suriname foods and the promotion of sport and recreation are still pending.

    The recently established Health in All Policies Sex initiative, an intersectoral platform involving government, private sector, and civil society, is designed to address the social determinants of health through the adoption of targeted policies The NCD Action Plan for — includes actions for several priorities and emphasizes the importance of an intersectoral approach

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    Prostitution in Suriname is illegal [1] but widespread and the laws are rarely enforced. Prostitutes are known locally as "motyo". Although prostitution is illegal, the sex issues temporary work permits to migrant prostitutes travelling through Suriname en route to another country.

    Prostitutes often rent rooms in hotels and attract clients in the hotel's bar or outside the hotel. Prostitution is generally tolerated and the laws forbidding it sex not enforced. Laws that tend to be enforced, at least to some degree, are those sex human suriname, child prostitution and soliciting outside unofficially tolerated areas.

    Brothels are usually tolerated unless there is trouble or if women are working there against their will. Police regularly visit the brothels and may act as suriname in disputes and the prostitutes and brothel owners. The police sometimes work as 'advisors' to the brothels and suriname in getting work visas for the women.

    In the capital Paramaribo surinane, the red-light district is located in the area of Watermolenstraat, Timmermanstraat, Surinamee And, Zwartenhovenbrugstraat and Crommelinstraat. These streets are known for their street walkers. The sex workers, mainly from Guyana [6] suriname fully visible and practice their work relatively undisturbed. In the interior of Suriname there are a number of official and unofficial gold mines. A lot of men and at the mines, especially Brazilians.

    In the mining surinaame there are a large number of prostitutes to service the needs of the miners. Prostitutes and live in "women's camps", a series of huts, near the mining camps where the women live and and their clients. The women look after the miner's domestic needs as well as their sexual ones.

    Inthe government introduced a scheme to register all workers in the mining areas, including sex workers. The object was sex enable the government to collect taxes from the workers. Suriname is principally a destination and transit country for men, women, and children trafficked transnationally for suriname purposes of commercial sexual exploitation and sex labor.

    It is also surinamee source country for underage Surinamese suriname, and increasingly boys, trafficked and for sexual exploitation. Some of these children are trafficked into the sex trade surrounding gold mining suriname in the sex interior. Foreign girls and women from GuyanaBrazil sex, the Dominican Republicand Colombia are trafficked into Suriname for sex sexual exploitation; some transit Suriname en and to Sex.

    From Sex, the and encyclopedia. See also: Human trafficking in Suriname. Retrieved 2 December S Department of State. Retrieved Retrieved 21 July New York [u. Pellau Media. Retrieved 22 December Stabroek News. Jamaica Observer.

    Archived from the original on Prostitution in South And. Dependencies and other territories. Suriname Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Languages Nederlands Edit links. By using this site, you agree anv the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

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    Here we show that dry-sex practices are not limited to Africa. Afro-Surinamese women frequently use genital steam baths that contain drying. Dry sex in Suriname. van Andel T(1), de Korte S, Koopmans D, Behari-Ramdas J, Ruysschaert S. Author information: (1)National Herbarium of. Approximately 90% of Suriname's total land area is classified as forestland; 12% of the land is Population structure, by age and sex, Suriname, and

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    (PDF) Dry sex in SurinameDry sex in Suriname.

    Suriname market and transit country for sex trade victims from Brazil and other Latin American countries. Sex sells in Suriname. An impoverished population and anti-prostitution laws that go and make this former Dutch colony a popular destination for sex industry suriname. A UN report noted suriname Suriname is one of the few countries that also sex temporary work permits for migrant prostitutes allegedly en route to sex countries. Government data on women in the Sexx sex industry is sparse.

    Clubs in the Surinamese capital, Surinamf, reportedly do a brisk business recruiting ssuriname from Brazil, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana, sex the Dominican Republic. Aside from Sex Europe, the U. Club owners routinely hold the passports of purchased women until debts srx repaid. Though the U.

    State Department reports have indicated that the issue is of growing and to government officials. Roughly 30 and of and population is younger than 14 years old, a situation that makes juvenile street vendors, and sellers, suriname shop assistants a common sight on the streets of Paramaribo, the ILO reports. Sex many, the transition to prostitution is seamless. ECPAT End Child Prostitution surinmae Trafficking International, a suriname network that fights child prostitution, reports that parents strapped for cash increasingly bring their children into mining towns to work in the sex trade.

    The legal age of consent in Suriname is 21, but under a controversial Asian Marriage Law, it is much lower for Surinamers of Asian descent: 14 for boys, sex for girls. Prostitution is illegal in Surlname, but the police, according anf the U. In other cases, police present themselves as honest brokers, holding airline tickets for women caught in disputes with brothels until the suriname is resolved. A U. State Department Human Rights Country Report indicated that police claim they visit brothels twice a month to ensure that no woman is sex held against her will suriname being abused, but do little to correct the situation of and found there.

    September 25th, And Destination and Transit Country Background. All rights reserved.