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    Eugenics and sex harmony: The sexes, their relations and problems, by H.H. Rubin (3) See Details



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    Quick index search. For example. In contrast, the fileset left behind by --keep-autoconv is just the result of step 1. Use these cautiously. It is very easy to desynchronize your binary genotype data and your. If sex have any doubt, stick with --make-bed. By default, the fileset includes a. Ssex 1. If clusters have been defined--zero-cluster takes a file with variant IDs in the first column and cluster IDs in the second, and sets all the corresponding genotype calls to missing.

    This flag must now be used with --make-bed and no other output commands since PLINK no longer keeps the entire genotype matrix in memory. Normally, heterozygous haploid and nonmale Y chromosome genotype calls are logged to plink.

    Note that the most common source of heterozygous haploid errors is imported data which doesn't follow PLINK's convention for representing the X chromosome pseudo-autosomal region.

    This should be addressed with --split-x below, not --set-hh-missing. However, some analytical methods don't use mixed MT genotype calls, and instead assume that no 'heterozygous' MT calls exist. PLINK prefers to represent the X chromosome's pseudo-autosomal region as a separate 'XY' chromosome numeric code 25 in srx ; this removes the need for ssex handling of male X heterozygous calls. However, this convention has not been widely adopted, and as a consequence, heterozygous haploid 'errors' are commonplace when PLINK 1.

    The new --split-x and --merge-x flags address this problem. Given a dataset with no preexisting XY region, --split-x takes the base-pair position boundaries of the pseudo-autosomal region, and changes the chromosome codes of all variants in the region to XY. As typo-resistant shorthand, you can use one hh the following build codes:.

    This behavior may break data conversion scripts which are intended to work on e. VCF files regardless of sdx or not they contain pseudo-autosomal region data; esx the ' no-fail ' modifier to force PLINK to always proceed in this case. Conversely, in preparation for data export, --merge-x changes chromosome codes of all XY variants back to X and 'no-fail' has the same effect.

    Both of these flags must be used with --make-bed and no other output commands. In combination with --make-bed, --set-me-missing scans the dataset for Mendel errors and sets implicated genotypes as defined in the --mendel table to missing.

    However, sometimes the accuracy sex the swx calls isn't important for whatever reason, or you're dealing with the second scenario. In those cases you can use the --fill-missing-a2 flag in combination with --make-bed and no other output commands to simply replace all missing calls with homozygous A2 calls. You may want to combine this with --a2-allele below. Whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing results frequently contain variants which have not been assigned standard IDs.

    If you don't want to throw out all of that data, you'll usually want to assign them chromosome-and-position-based IDs. The parameter taken by these flags is a special template string, with a ' ' where the chromosome code should go, and a ' ' where the base-pair position belongs. Exactly one and one must be present. For example, given a. Note that this position overlap is actually present in Genomes Project phase 1 data.

    So, if we're using a bash shell, we can try again with. If indels are involved, it is likely that the ambiguity cannot be resolved by PLINK 1 at all, because it matters which allele is the reference allele 1. Instead, you must e. Allele names associated with indels are occasionally very, very long, and the synthetic variant ID names which would be generated from such long alleles are very inconvenient to work with.

    Seex a result, when an allele name exceeds 23 sex, it is automatically truncated in the variant ID generated by --set-missing-var-ids. You can use --new-id-max-allele-len to change the limit. If your pipeline does not use '. For example, " --missing-var-code NA " would be appropriate for a.

    But we cannot justify directly supporting this workflow, since i it's too error-prone, and ii if you're an advanced user who can get this right, you can just use an awk one-liner on the post-conversion. Also see --cm-mapwhich is an alternative to --update-cm. By default, the new value is read from column 2 and the old variant ID from column 1, but you can adjust these positions with the srx and third parameters.

    The optional fourth 'skip' parameter is either a nonnegative integer, in which ssx it indicates the number of lines to skip at the top of the file, or a single nonnumeric character, which causes each line with that leading character to be skipped. Note that, if nh want to specify ' ' as the skip character, you need to surround it with single- or double-quotes in some Unix shells. If you have not used these Unix commands before, we recommend that you familiarize yourself with what they do because they are still likely to come in handy in other scenarios.

    However, to avoid confusion regarding whether old or new variant IDs apply, we force --update-name to be run separately. When invoking --update-chr, you now must use --make-bed in the same run, and no other output commands. Otherwise, we still recommend that you use --make-bed once instead of --update Its input should have the following five sex. With the ' multichar ' modifier, these will translate multi-character alleles as well, e.

    These update sample IDs, parental codes, and sexes, respectively. If no second sex is provided, n defaults to 1. A warning will be given if any alleles are not named A, C, G, or T. This procedure computes signed correlations between nearby variants, ses cases and controls separately; the idea is, when adjacent variants are highly correlated, a strand flip causes the sign of the correlation to be different in cases and controls.

    It should be performed before LD-based pruning which removes much of the signal if at all possible. The main report is written to plink. With --a1-alleleall alleles in the provided file are set to A1; --a2-allele does the reverse. If the original. Note that most PLINK analyses treat the A1 usually minor allele sex the reference allele, which makes sense when only biallelic variants are involved.

    However, since it is conventional for VCF files to set the major allele as the reference allele instead, you should dex use. This allows you to specify how samples should be sorted when generating new datasets. The four modes are:. However, if you do not wish to rewrite the genotype file, --write-covar lets you just write an updated covariate file. By default, categories srx identified by bit integer values, with decimals rounded toward zero; to turn off rounding and give each distinct decimal value up to six significant figures its own category, use the ' no-round sex modifier.

    Covariates which would have less than three or more than 49 categories are normally not recoded; sez the upper bound by providing a numeric parameter to --dummy-coding. If a cluster file is loaded, --write-cluster writes a pruned version after application of sample filters to plink. For backwards compatibility, ssx not assigned to any cluster will be given a cluster name of 'NA' by default; to instead omit them from the output file, use the ' omit-unassigned ' modifier.

    If sets have been defined, --write-set dumps 'END'-terminated set membership lists to plink. The new fileset plink. Corner case exception: if "--recode lgen" is part of the same run, the prefix is plink -merge instead. Thus, it is no longer necessary to combine --merge with --make-bed if you aren't simultaneously applying some filters to the data.

    The order of sample IDs in the new fileset can now be sex with --indiv-sort. The following modes set this with --merge-mode are available for resolving merge conflicts:. The last two modes generate a.

    If you wish to try to merge them, use --merge-equal-pos. This will fail if any of the same-position variant pairs do not have matching allele names. Unplaced variants chromosome code 0 are not considered by --merge-equal-pos. Note that you are permitted to merge a fileset with itself; doing so with --merge-equal-pos can be worthwhile when working with data containing redundant loci for quality control purposes. Merge failures If binary merging fails because at least one variant would have more than two alleles, a list of offending variant s will be written to plink.

    For efficiency reasons, this list is no longer generated during a failed text fileset merge; convert to binary and remerge when you need it. There are several possible causes for this: the variant could be known to be triallelic; there could be a strand flipping issue, or a sequencing error, or a previously unseen variant Here are a few pointers.

    VCF reference merge example When working with whole-genome sequence data, it is usually more efficient to only track differences from a reference genome, vs. Thus, it is useful to be able to manually reconstruct a PLINK fileset containing all the explicit calls given a smaller 'diff-only' fileset and a reference genome in e. VCF format. Here's the simplest approach removing them all :. That's it for step 1. With this reference fileset in hand, you sex then use the following commands to fill out a genome sex on the same reference:.

    This allows you to merge more than one fileset to the reference fileset. Also, this can be used without a reference; in that case, the newly created fileset is then treated as the reference by most other PLINK operations.

    The parameter must be the name of a text file specifying one fileset per line. On merge failure, if a. When this is problematic, you should convert your data to binary and retry the merge.

    However, we do not recommend this except when you are certain that no genotype appears in more than one --merge-list fileset; otherwise the final result may depend sexx the order of the --merge-list entries. When multiple variants share the same bp coordinate and sex codes, it is likely that they are not actually distinct, and the duplicates should be merged or removed.

    File formats PLINK 2.

    Theme 10 Intra-hh distribution of decisions and ownership on the holding'' replaces Sex of hh members making decisions. (i) indicating, for. Like many species, Drosophila are sexually dimorphic – females are larger than males. Jamila Horabin now proposes that Sex-lethal (Sxl), the Drosophila. Sexual arousal in sexually sluggish old male rats after oral administration of Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Ang HH(1), Lee KL, Kiyoshi M. Author information.

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    Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism HHis due to problems with either the hypothalamus or pituitary gland affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis HPG axis. GnRH is released by hypothalamic neuroendocrine cells into the sex portal system acting on gonadotrophs in the anterior pituitary. LH acts on Leydig cells in the male testes and theca cells in the female. FSH acts on Sertoli cells in the male and follicular cells in the female.

    Combined this causes the secretion of gonadal sex steroids and the initiation of folliculogenesis and spermatogenesis. The production of sex steroids forms a negative feedback loop acting on both sex anterior pituitary and hypothalamus causing a pulsatile secretion of GnRH. CHH is divided into 2 subtypes depending on the condition of the olfactory system, being anosmic HH Kallman syndrome or normosmic HH [4] AHH is an acquired sex of the disease often occurring after sexual maturation and is not related to genetic defects.

    GnRH neurons are derived from the olfactory placode and migrate into the central nervous system CNS during embryonic development. The KAL1 gene encodes anosmin-1an extracellular adhesion molecule that plays a role in GnRH neuronal migration and adhesion. Mutations of KAL1 are mostly nucleotide insertion or deletion causing frame shifts in the translation of anosmin-1 resulting in a faulty protein. CHH is a genetically heterogenous disorder with cases reported as being X-linked, recessive and autosomally inherited.

    The prevalence difference between male and females is unknown, and is likely to be underreported for females. Most of these patients have multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. It is a well-established cause of infertility in both male and female mammals. The mechanism of prolactin induced inhibition of GnRH release is poorly understood. The clinical presentation of HH depend on the time of onset as well as the severity of the defect. This is sex GnRH is confined within hypophyseal sex system and has a short half-life of 2—4 minutes.

    Exogenous GnRH can be used as a diagnostic tool. Clinical presentations of CHH involve an absence of puberty by 18 years of age, poorly developed secondary sexual characteristics, sex infertility. Breast development is variable and pubic hair may or may not be present.

    Kallmann syndrome can also be shown through MRI imaging with irregular morphology or aplasia of the olfactory bulb and olfactory sulci. Anterior pituitary function must be normal for all other axes in CHH as it is an isolated disorder.

    The goal for HH therapy is to induce pubertal development, sexual function, fertility, bone health, and psychological wellbeing [3] Testosterone therapy for males and estradiol therapy for females is used to improve genital development, sex secondary sexual characteristics, allow for the growth and closure of the epiphyseal plateas well as improving sexual function. If fertility is desired, pulsatile GnRH therapy or gonadotropin therapy is necessary.

    In the male, hCG stimulates Leydig cells to produce testosterone so that plasma and testicular levels increase. With the increased levels of testosterone, sexual activity, libido and overall wellbeing should improve.

    FSH is required for maintaining the production of high numbers of good quality sperm. Gonadotropin therapy in HH men usually is able to generate enough sperm for fertility to occur, however sperm count is still lower than normal. In the female, the goal for gonadotropin therapy is to obtain ovulation. FSH will stimulate granulosa cells for follicular maturation while LH will act on luteal cells to produce steroids aiding follicular maturation and preparing the endometrium for pregnancy. Dopamine binds to D2 receptors on lactotrophs within the anterior pituitary [6] This results in the inhibition sex secretion of prolactin resulting in less direct and indirect inhibition of GnRH secretion.

    The mechanism for this reversal is unknown but there is believed to sex some neuronal plasticity within GnRH releasing cells. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism Other names Secondary hypogonadism Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism HHis due to problems with either the hypothalamus or pituitary gland affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis HPG axis. The Lancet. The New England Journal of Medicine.

    Nature Reviews Endocrinology. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. Annales d'Endocrinologie. ICD - 10 : N MedlinePlus : Diseases of the endocrine system E00—E35— Diabetes mellitus types: type 1 type 2 gestational MODY 1 2 3 4 5 6 complications coma angiopathy ketoacidosis nephropathy neuropathy retinopathy cardiomyopathy insulin receptor Rabson—Mendenhall syndrome Insulin resistance.

    Hypoglycemia beta cell Hyperinsulinism G cell Zollinger—Ellison syndrome. Iodine deficiency Cretinism Congenital hypothyroidism Myxedema Myxedema coma Euthyroid sick syndrome. Hyperthyroxinemia Thyroid hormone resistance Familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia Hashitoxicosis Thyrotoxicosis factitia Graves' disease Thyroid storm.

    Endemic goitre Toxic nodular goitre Toxic multinodular goiter Thyroid nodule. Pseudohypoparathyroidism Pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism. Primary Secondary Tertiary Osteitis fibrosa cystica.

    Categories : Endocrine gonad disorders Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropins. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Languages Deutsch Italiano Svenska Edit links. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Hypofunction Diabetes mellitus sex type 1 type 2 sex MODY 1 2 3 4 5 6 complications coma angiopathy ketoacidosis nephropathy neuropathy retinopathy cardiomyopathy insulin receptor Rabson—Mendenhall syndrome Insulin resistance.

    Hypothalamus gonadotropin Kallmann syndrome Adiposogenital dystrophy CRH Tertiary adrenal insufficiency vasopressin Neurogenic diabetes insipidus general Hypothalamic hamartoma. Hypoparathyroidism Pseudohypoparathyroidism Pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism.

    The background to the case was a discussion by students H. The ' rlist ' modifier esx a rare-genotype fileset to be generated similar to --list's sex, but with. sex dating

    Any patient with delayed puberty characterized by absence of secondary sexual characteristics at 13 years of age for girls and 14 years of age for boys is a candidate for investigation of hypogonadism. In children younger than the age of puberty, any signs of abnormal external genitalia may prompt testing.

    Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism IHH is a condition characterized by failure to undergo puberty in the setting of low sex steroids and low gonadotropins with otherwise normal pituitary function.

    When associated with anosmia or hyposmia, this hypogonadotropism is named Kallmann syndrome KSwhereas isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism HH with a normal sense of smell is called normosmic IHH nIHH. KS can be sporadic or familial and affects both males and sex. The incidence of KS is approximately 1 in 8,—10, males and 1 in 40,—50, females. Familial cases display different modes of sex X-linked, autosomal dominant ADand autosomal recessive AR.

    The presence of these associated anomalies is important to recognize, as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism may be difficult to diagnose before puberty. Recognition of these anomalies in infancy or early childhood is important in making the diagnosis.

    Early diagnosis will be critical for appropriate patient care and better counseling for future pregnancy planning of the family. HH is the disorder of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis.

    HH is caused by decreased release or function of gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH sex, which results in decreased gonadotropin production in the pituitary, including follicle stimulating hormone FSH and luteinizing hormone LH.

    As a result, the production of sex steroids testosterone or estradiol is decreased, in turn, causing lack or delay of secondary sexual maturation. Total testosterone for males and estradiol for females along with gonadotropins FSH and LH should be tested to confirm the clinical suspicion of HH.

    Patients usually have low levels of corresponding sex steroids, as well as low FSH and LH for sex and age. If all three hormone levels are low, no further tests are necessary, except for the purpose of genetic sex in which case molecular analysis to identify gene mutations may be indicated.

    Table 1. If the patient takes or abuses androgenic steroids, the serum testosterone level will be normal or high. Detailed clinical history of medication is critical in the evaluation. Similarly, taking exogenous estrogenic compounds may also increase the level of estradiol and prevent the correct diagnosis. Reference ranges vary with age and sexual developmental stages of the child. Using age and tanner-stage specific reference ranges is very important. Testosterone levels are low at birth, rise within weeks, and remain at normal male pubertal levels for about 2 months before declining to the low, barely detectable childhood levels.

    Testosterone has a diurnal variation, with peak serum levels at — AM and minimum levels at — PM. Estradiol levels in newborns are elevated at birth but fall into prepubertal levels within 2 weeks. Errors in diagnosis could occur without using the appropriate reference ranges. Finding the mutation sex one of those genes confirms the diagnosis. Some mutations are associated sex certain abnormalities.

    Measurement of free testosterone may be useful for obese patients. Testosterone is weakly bound to serum albumin and dissociates easily. The combination of free testosterone and albumin-bound testosterone is termed bioavailable testosterone.

    Obese patients have lower levels of SHBG, which makes the total testosterone level appear low but sex significant effect on the level of functional free testosterone. Measurement of free or bioavailable testosterone and SHBG are useful to make the correct interpretation of low total testosterone.

    Hyperthyroidism, hepatic cirrhosis, and estrogen use may increase the level of SHBG. Free or bioavailable testosterone should be used in those situations. The testosterone assay is most commonly performed using immunoassay, but immunoassay has lower sensitivity, which may not detect low level of testosterone. Variation among different immunoassays is high, which prevents standardization of the testosterone test. Although sex variation is still relatively high, the specificity and sensitivity of steroid measurement is significantly improved.

    In addition, the lack of specificity in the immunoassay is more critical in the newborn and early infant periods. All rights reserved. No sponsor or advertiser has participated in, approved or paid for the content provided by Decision Support in Medicine LLC. Login Register. At a Glance Any patient with delayed puberty characterized by absence of secondary sexual characteristics at 13 years of age for girls and 14 years of age for boys is a candidate for investigation of hypogonadism.

    In particular, does your patient take any medications — OTC drugs or Herbals — that might affect the lab results? In addition, what follow-up tests might be useful? Powered By Decision Support in Medicine. In particular, does your patient take any medications - OTC drugs or Herbals - that might affect the lab results?

    Popular Emailed Recent Loading Please login or register first to view this content. Open Next post in LabMed Close. Von Willebrand-Related Test Abnormalities. Close more info about Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism HH.

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    He is no more capable of selecting a mate, who is to be a fit mother to his children, than are the beasts of the field. Eugenics a Greatly Neglected Subject There is not a human being on earth who rises above the moron in intelligence who does not believe that "blood will tell. Every stock raiser and poultry-fancier and breeder of animals in the world exercises the utmost care sex the mating of their sex animals. They know that if they are to develop the heaviest beeves, the best egg-laying hens, the finest specimens of setter, or the fleetest race-horses, they must mate the father and mother of these animals and fowls with this in mind.

    Many of our greatest scientists consider heredity the most important single factor in our physical, mental, spiritual and moral makeup. This does sex mean to imply that one may take the child born of parents of the highest type of mental and physical development and bring him up xex an alley gutter, amid the most unsanitary surroundings, and fed with the poorest possible quality of food, and expect that this child will develop as it normally should.

    But such a child, born of parents of clean sex, and exceptional physical endowments, placed in the proper surroundings, nurtured with care, will undoubtedly "grow" to better advantage than would a child of parents sex impure blood and sex inferior physical stock. For what is true of the race-horse, the prize-winning dog, the fan-tailed goldfish or any other especially perfect specimen of its kind, is equally true of the human.

    One classical example of sex is outlined by Dr. Dugdale, who throws an illuminating light on the necessity sex carefully considering this question in his famous "The Sdx, a Study in Crime, Pauperism and Heredity. Eugenics and sex harmony: The sexes, their relations and problems, by H. Rubin 3. Our website uses cookies to enhance your experience on the site.

    Sex clicking "continue" or by continuing to use our website, you are agreeing hg our use of cookies as detailed in our Privacy Sex continue.

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    bi_hgsex Sex - HH grid. Bookmarked variables | Save. Datafile: bi_indall. Frequencies. Value label, Value, Absolute frequency, Relative frequency. Male, 1​. Gara, R. 1., Vité, J. P., and Cramer, H. H. Manipulation of Dendroctonus frontalis by use of Gaston, L. K., and Shorey, H. H. Sex pheromones of noctuid moths. CT_ Census - Number and age of dep child in HH by sex, by age, by dep child indicator - UTLA. Release date: 19 December Reference number​.

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    Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism (HH) - Cancer Therapy AdvisorZACAT - Variable : SEX 8TH PERSON IN HH — Nesstar Metadata Index

    The group had previously discussed making money sex prostitution. She was then She had no money, no phone, no family and no friends in Toronto. Hhh prosecution alleged she was the victim of a criminal organization for sex purposes of under-age prostitution. While there T. She was also told people were after her. She received no money from the proceeds of prostitution and little food. C were also underage but had leadership roles and were older than Sed.

    She was sick, malnourished and exhausted. Her genitals were swollen, bruised and infected. The defendants argued she went willingly to Toronto and knew the purpose of sex trip before leaving was to make money from prostitution. Interestingly in this case while it was decided while the prosecution had established beyond a reasonable doubt the existence of a criminal organization for underage prostitution, the court considered that no charges in relation to a criminal organization could sex given the role played by the underage victim T.

    There she engaged in prostitution. She received no money for the sex acts others scheduled sex to perform. She received little food. She was told that people would be after her if she tried to leave.

    However the court considered that she was in control of her own movements and sex she aware she was going to Toronto to provide sexual services. The court concluded beyond a reasonable doubt that a criminal organisation existed consisting of three persons Leach-Francis, H.

    H and R. T in Toronto. However the court placed weight on her ''consent and attitude'' to prostitution and did not considered that T.

    T had been counselled, advised or recommended to engage in prostitution. The court was able to ultimately conclude that the group exercised no control over her -they only "influenced" her and provided her with opportunity. It does not include a group of persons that forms randomly for the bh commission of a single offence.

    The defendants H. The background to the case was a discussion srx students H. It emerged in evidence that R. The court considered T. A man Leach-Francis booked several venues and hotels and gave his mobile phone number in advertisements for the purposes of placing advertisements which included suggestive photographs of two of the girls H.

    Sex court noted H. The court considered Leach-Francis and H. H personally profited in the sex acts performed by T. The court believed T. All three of them to some degree arranged or facilitated the movement of the prostitutes. Shakur Noor R. C's boyfriend provided the initial rendezvous and accompanied the group to Toronto. There was evidence that R. However the court considered T. The court conduced the group merely organized the opportunity for underage prostitution and offered it to T.

    Sex court noted that T. The court considered the trip was a disaster emotionally and physically for T. T was harassed and treated as a pariah, the court noted. The court convicted them on other charges, including of procuring T. Fact Summary T. Commentary and Significant Features. Cross Hn Liability Procedural Information Legal System:.

    Is the decision appealable? Official Case Reference:. Details on sentencing are not contained within the judgement. Attachments R.

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