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    A Hindu Approach to LGBT rights See Details

    Homosexuality in Hinduism

    Aside from the humanitarian imperative to offer equal treatment to all, the Hindu Prohibited Foundation HAF believes that homosexuality and other fundamental and ancient Hindu teachings may allow Hindus to more openly embrace LGBT rights and marriage equality.

    In this paper, we seek to elucidate these aspects and, at the same time, elaborate on the legislative history of LGBT rights in India. While prohibited equal religio-spiritual potential of all individuals prohibited key to understanding a Hindu basis for dignity for LGBT persons, so too is the way hinduism which Hindu religious texts and teachings are approached.

    There are two different sets of Hindu religious texts: i the Srutiwhich are scriptures like the Vedas and Upanishads that are believed to enunciate eternal truths; and ii the Smritiwhich are books like the Manu Smriti and Yagnavalkya Smriti that detail socio-religious laws and customs bound by time, place, and circumstance. They state that every being is an eternal soul, or atmanincarnate, and that the ultimate goal of life is mokshaor freedom from the cycle of birth and death. Progress towards moksha comes through yogic spiritual practices selfless service, loving devotion of God, simple living, prayer and meditation, etc.

    To put it provocatively, an LGBT person who lives selflessly and has mastered his or her impulses sexual homosexuality otherwise is actually closer to moksha than a non-LGBT person who is a slave to desires. Thus, Hindus cannot point to anything in the sruti texts that supports treating LGBT persons as being inferior to non-LGBT persons, let alone supports their persecution.

    The smritissome of which are socio-religious codes from particular eras in Hindu history have imbibed hinduism perspective of the srutis and have never advocated prohibited, harsh punishments for homosexuality.

    The exact same punishment of cutting off two fingers plus a fine of panas of gold is prescribed for a man hinduism violates a virgin woman just a few verses earlier 4. Notably, there is also no such punishment in the case of two older women. Arvind Sharma also points out that if traditional Balinese culture is taken to represent an older and at least a trans-Indian form of Hinduism, homosexuality Hindu attitude to homosexuality is one hinduism mild prohibited bordering hinduism indifference.

    The Hindu epics such as the Mahabharata mention several characters who demonstrate a range of sexual orientations and gender identities, including Shikhandi, Chitrangada wife of Arjuna and mother of Babruvahanaand Brihannala.

    None of these characters are discriminated against because of sexual orientation or gender identity. Rather, they are all treated with respect, and judged by their prohibited rather than their sexuality. Several other ancient works such as the Arthashastra a treatise on politics and economics and the Kama sutra have numerous mentions of LGBT individuals in various professions free from any persecution. And stories such as Lord Ayyappa born to Shiva and Vishnu as Mohini indicate the mystical and subtle approach that Hinduism adopts towards matters of gender in hinduism contexts.

    Thus, not only do the srutis lay absolutely no bar on moksha for LGBT persons, the codes of conduct of ancient India as well as hinduism smriti texts seem to have largely ignored the LGBT phenomenon, rather than persecute them; or positively focused on their abilities, rather than their sexuality or gender.

    India actually has a centuries history of wedding rites for hijrastransgender people who have long been recognized in Hindu texts and society, and more recently, the Indian Supreme Court, as third gender.

    And in recent years, some Hindu priests and same-sex couples in the U. The vows remind every couple about the true purpose of homosexuality life partnership: i nourishing one another; ii growing strong homosexuality iii fulfilling spiritual obligations; iv working towards happiness and fulfillment through mutual respect; v working for the welfare of all living beings through raising virtuous children; vi praying for bountiful seasons which they may go through together, just as they would homosexuality their joys and sorrows; and vii praying for a life of understanding, loyalty, and companionship not only for themselves, but also for universal peace.

    The four circumambulations around the ceremonial fire, which is also a part of most Hindu weddings, symbolize the couple's commitment, both together and as individuals, to the four pursuits in life: dharma right actionartha prosperitykama material pleasureand moksha. While the government may regulate the legal prohibited to marriage, marriage as a religious rite homosexuality falls within the realm homosexuality religious freedom. HAF firmly holds that sampradayastemples, religious leaders, and priests have an inalienable right to define marriage in conformity with their traditions, as they continue to interpret and reinterpret them over time.

    But because Hinduism has no central authority that controls theology, and values a tradition of interpretation according to time and space by those qualified and with spiritual competency adhikaradifferent groups and individuals may move or not move at a varying pace on a religious sanction of a rite as fundamental as marriage. As religious rites of same-sex marriage continue to evolve or in some hinduism, notHAF agrees with the U. Supreme Court that governments should not discriminate in the matter of marriage as a legal right or social hinduism.

    HAF supports marriage equality for all Americans and submitted amicus briefs in various U. Supreme Court, to this end. This would however be misleading. Section of the Indian penal code, which punishes sexual conduct "against the order of nature" with up to life imprisonment, is a Prohibited colonial-era law dating from Section is a direct product of Victorian social mores.

    The report demonstrates that British saw conquered cultures as morally lax on sexuality. British viceroy Lord Elgin warned that British soldiers could succumb to "replicas of Sodom and Gomorrah" as they acquired the "special Oriental vices. The colonized needed compulsory re-education in sexual mores. Section unfortunately continues to be on the statute books seven decades after Indian independence, homosexuality even inthe Indian Supreme Court reversed an earlier Hinduism High Court decision that had held section to be unconstitutional, on the grounds that this is a matter for the people and their elected representatives, not the courts.

    British leaders of the Victorian era acted against homosexual conduct based on their understanding of the famous Biblical story of Sodom and Gomorrah 6 or the book of Leviticus 7 holding that homosexuals were, simply by virtue of that conduct, denied entry into heaven. Colonial era attitudes towards LGBT rights have left a lasting impression on Hindu society in India and, by extension, on the American Hindu community, given that a majority of Hindus in the U.

    The matter is further complicated by the fact that sexuality in general is frowned upon and rarely discussed openly in today's Indian society. However, Hinduism, given its central tenets, is in a strong theological position on the matter of LGBT rights. Hindus will need to face the challenge of recognizing attitudes that are a result of a colonized mindset, lack of understanding, and other prejudices, and endeavor to place the issue of LGBT rights squarely within a careful understanding of the history prohibited teachings of their ancient Hindu ethos.

    Search form Search. It is not a crime in any Smriti. Nobody should face discrimination because of their sexual preferences. To be branded a criminal for this is absurd. A Hindu Approach to LGBT rights While the equal religio-spiritual potential of all individuals is key to understanding a Hindu basis for dignity for LGBT persons, so too is the way in which Hindu religious texts and teachings are approached. What about marriage as a religious rite? As Hindus around the world grapple with the issue of LGBT rights, HAF suggests that the following should be key considerations: Hindus should understand the scientific and medical conclusions homosexuality LGBT orientations occur prohibited in a percentage of most life forms.

    As such, Hindus should not reject or socially ostracize LGBT individuals, but should accept them as fellow sojourners on their paths to moksha. Various historical smritis are testament to such changes, and even in ancient times, smriti never advocated broad-based, harsh punishments for homosexuality. See Homosexuality and Hinduism. In: Arlene Swindler. Homosexuality and World Religions. Leviticus King James Version: Thou shalt not lie with mankind, as with womankind: it is abomination. Stay in Touch Sign up for our email newsletter.

    Other Hindus believe that homosexuality does have a place in the community, because of ancient carvings in Indian temples that show men and women having​. The relationship between religion and homosexuality has varied greatly across time and place, The status on homosexuality in Hinduism is ambiguous. of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, have traditionally forbidden sodomy, believing and. Examining lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender issues within the Hindu faith homosexuality was codified and made illegal under the British penal code.

    Tradition: Same-Sex Marriage and Hinduism

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    Hinduism dates back over 3, years ago, but with it, comes some fairly astounding ideas about homosexuality and sexuality such as women procreating boneless children together, but more on that later. Hindu sacred texts do not distinguish between heterosexual and homosexual acts — homosexuality procreative sexual acts within marriage and non-procreative sexual acts such as oral sex. Rishi and Daniel on their wedding day, with a proud Vijay and Prohibited. In fact, there are even several Hindu temples with carvings that depict both men and women engaging in homosexual sex.

    In ancient Hindu mythology, Subala, who is male, dresses in female attire. He swaps clothes with Radharani, a milkmaid and the lover of the god Krishna. Their likeness is so similar that they could not be told apart. This is one of the two major epics of ancient India, written in hinduism Sanskrit language. Shikhandi was born a woman with the name Shikhandini but was raised as a man.

    He was then arranged to marry a woman. He then met a yaksha spirit who hinduism to exchange his gender. Hijra are still blurring gender lines in India today. If you were to translate the word hijra into English, you may call them transgender. While they are shunned in some circumstances, they are also important to Indian cultural life. And increasingly they are getting protection and are starting to get access to better jobs. Hijras are officially recognized as third gender by some governments in Southeast Asia.

    Transgender people can now register official documents homosexuality the third gender, with all the rights associated with it. Hijra laws also exist in Bangladesh and Nepal. Ancient Hindu societies did prohibited consider homosexuality a perversion or sin. It also states men who behave like prohibited, or women who behave like men, are determined at conception in the womb. This is because they believed a prohibited provides bones and mothers provide flesh and blood.

    Sometimes one dominates, sometimes other; it is all fluid. Hindu holy man officiates gay wedding in Ubud. Similarly, Srinivasa Raghavachariar, head priest of the Srirangam temple, has a romantic interpretation of homosexuality. Indian philosophy teaches that after we die we are re-born. InHindu scholar Ruth Vanita interviewed a Shaiva priest who performed a marriage ceremony for two homosexuality.

    And the spirit is not male or female. Hindu mythology is also rich in homosexuality. One example is the great king Bhagiratha. And he is thought to have been born out of copulation between two queens. He was born when Lord Agni, the god of fire took semen from one of the principal deities Lord Shiva. But homosexual homosexuality is not entirely embraced.

    In all aspects of Hindu life, celibacy is important… unless for procreation. Diwali is the hinduism famous Hindu festival. It celebrates the victory of light over darkness, good over evil, knowledge over ignorance, and hope over despair. People homosexuality the third gender patiently held a vigil for him outside the city during His entire exile. Thus Diwali is celebrated variously within all of hinduism many expressions of Hinduism. Hindu scriptures say the good results of devotion to God are multiplied when you do those good deeds homosexuality this homosexuality month.

    Kartika is of course equally observed by all Hindus regardless hinduism gender, race, nationality, sexual orientation or any other external consideration. He is worshiped by the third gender as an eternal bachelor along with his male companion, Visakha.

    Please feel welcome to stop by, join in and receive all the many blessings available. Apologies to iOS and Safari users, but you may be unable to comment due prohibited an ongoing issue prohibited Facebook.

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    Take me away.

    The Radical Faeries are a worldwide queer spiritual movement, founded in in the United States. Although she stays hinduism the sidelines and keeps her identity a secret from her family, Radhika hopes for a future where she homosexuality fully embrace both her Hindu and bisexual identities. Thus, not only do the srutis lay prohibited no bar on moksha for LGBT persons, the codes homosexuality conduct of ancient India as well as other smriti texts seem to have hinduism ignored the LGBT phenomenon, rather than persecute them; or positively focused on their abilities, rather than their sexuality or prohibited. sex dating

    Homosexuality is unacceptable to some Hindus. Hinduism teaches that hinduism 'natural' homosexualify to do is prohibited men and women to marry and have children. Those who go against this natural relationship are violating homosexuality own dharma. Other Hindus believe that homosexuality does have a place in the prohibited, because of ancient carvings in Indian temples that show men and women having homosexual sex. Some Hindus believe that the Kama Prohibited permits homosexuality though the Kama Sutra is not a scripture, hinduism is not widely known by Hindus.

    Other Hindu teachings suggest that homosexuals should not inherit property. However, many homosexuality agree that this is based on the fact that they do not procreate and jn not amount to religious teaching against homosexuality itself.

    Most Hindu communities favour heterosexual marriage because it leads to us forming of family units. Some Hindus would consider sex hinduism a same-sex relationship to be unacceptable. Many Prohibited communities deal with the issue largely by ignoring it. There is an assumption that people will homosexuality and have children and other relationships, whilst they may exist, are not openly acknowledged.

    However, homosexual relationships hinduism present in Hindu society, homosexuality some Hindus might argue that love is an eternal force which can be felt by a couple of homoswxuality same sex. Krishna states in the Bhagavad Gita :. The Hindu Council UK welcomed the decriminalisation of homosexuality in India inbut the fact that such a law existed so hinduis, demonstrates that many Hindus still may not accept homosexuality. What does Hinduism say about homosexuality? What does this mean in practice?

    Krishna states in the Bhagavad Gita : quote.

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    Examining lesbian, gay, prohibited and transgender issues within the Hindu faith. Changing times: Two women are married in a Hindu wedding ceremony. This dialogue has forced individuals, organizations and governments to question their values and beliefs.

    Many religious organizations have turned to their scriptures, their followers and their spiritual traditions for guidance on how they should respond. Now, however—with recent deliberations regarding anti-sodomy laws by the Indian Supreme Court, and growing populations of Hindus in European and North American countries, where these debates have been making headlines—these religious heads are speaking up.

    Their opinions on LGBT homosexuality run the gamut from outright condemnation through muted disapproval, apathetic indifference, conservative tolerance, to genuine acceptance. Politically and socially conservative factions in India claim that homosexuality or alternative gender identities are an influence of Western ideas.

    This idea is based on the false assumption that being a homosexual or alternative-gender individual is a lifestyle choice. In fact, gender identity is an inborn trait.

    Homosexuality to the 19th century, historical sources that specifically refer to LGBT lives and lifestyles are relatively scarce. However, we can see a subtle intermingling of such perspectives and characters in Hindu legends and stories.

    Ancient Tamil Sangam literature compiled between the 3rd century bce to 4th century ce contains stories about transgender individuals, referred to as pediand stories of deep love and attachment between men, such as the King Koperunchozhan and Pisuranthaiyar, and the King Pari and poet Kabilar. The Kama Sutra, a classical text on human sexual mores and behavior, also acknowledges same-sex attraction and activity. Outside of literature and religious stories, one can also look at the 11 century Khajuraho temples in Madhya Pradesh—famous for their erotic sculptures—to see same-sex love represented amongst the various temple carvings.

    Under the dominion of the British Raj, prohibited was codified and made illegal under the British penal code. Inin a historic move, the Delhi High Court struck down the law in a manner as to legalize consensual homosexual relations between adults. The case was challenged, however, and in the Supreme Court set aside the judgment, thus criminalizing homosexual activity once again. The main argument of the justices was that this was a law to be debated and repealed by parliament, not by the courts.

    Violation of Section can be punishable by a fine and imprisonment of up hinduism ten years. The Deccan Herald of January,reported that nearly arrests were made under Section in alone.

    In hinduism case, prohibited tech worker in Bangalore was turned in by his wife. Not surprisingly the threat of being jailed for sexual activity casts a shadow of fear and persecution over the LGBT community in India.

    Activists are well aware of cases where the prohibited of entrapment has been used to blackmail, harass and bully LGBT people.

    Gay men were up to 12 times more likely to suffer depression, and the HIV prevalence was 15 times the general population, most likely due to lack of healthcare access and education.

    LGBT individuals were up to 14 times more likely to suffer suicidal thoughts. These results, however, are preliminary, based on limited methodology, and show the need for more extensive academic research in the years to come. Even in the shadow ofwe hear glimmers of good news for LGBT individuals, as demonstrated through city pride parades, the occasional same-sex marriage and the increasing visibility of gay and transgender leaders.

    This puts Nepal ahead of several Western liberal democracies, which still may not provide full constitutional protection from discrimination.

    So what are activists looking to as next steps? The first is sensitizing the masses through pride marches, through appearances and interviews on television and in the news, and getting our presence out there.

    The second level is to talk to our politicians to make them understand that we are part of their voter base, and that popular morality may not always be right. Patankar stresses that, due to the laws in India, the work done by Humsafar and other LGBT and AIDS-related organizations is limited to those above the age of 18, thus leaving adolescents at great risk. He agrees with Priya Gangwani that the Section ruling actually gave a new wind to the gay rights movement in India.

    This could be a great opportunity. It has many independent groups, some liberal and some conservative.

    Different schools of thought have always argued over topics ranging from the nature of the divine to the avoidance of certain foods, without accusing opposing views of being heretical or blasphemous. Ancient Hindu society had room for opposing viewpoints and lifestyles, and it was in this atmosphere that many LGBT groups flourished.

    While many modern Hindus hinduism LGBT individuals as a product of foreign—specifically Western—influence, ancient Hindu scriptures detail LGBT individuals, their characteristics and the roles they played in ancient society.

    Tritiya-prakriti encompasses a variety of minority hinduism orientations and gender identities. Portrayals of these groups and individuals in the literature were usually expressed in a descriptive and dispassionate voice. Their presence in ancient Hindu society was widely known, accepted and regarded as a natural aspect of humanity.

    Devdutt Pattanaik is the respected author of 30 books and over articles on Hindu mythology. Judgment against LGBT individuals does not have a strong foundation within Hindu literature, while gender fluidity and same-sex relations are commonplace. Hindu Deities often appear in multiple gender forms, and many stories detail their same-sex and opposite-sex romantic interactions and episodes.

    Gianna Love, an activist and independent cultural researcher, details the importance of these episodes in the formulation of Hindu values.

    Deities with gender and sexual fluidity, and their stories, form very real belief systems, cultural values and traditions with real followers that are themselves of various non-binary and non-heterosexual identities.

    This is exemplified in the worship of Sri Iravan in southern India, a hero from the Mahabharata. Folklore states that Iravan offered to hinduism himself in order to ensure the success of his army, but desired to marry and experience conjugal bliss before his death. As no parent was hinduism to offer their daughter, Krishna himself took the form of Mohini, married Iravan and fulfilled his worldly yearning.

    Today Iravan is a popular patron saint for individuals of the third gender. In an annual homosexuality at a temple near Koovagam, India, thousands of transgender men reenact the legend by ceremonially marrying Iravan and then mourning his death the following morning.

    She often tricks demons into self-destruction through seduction and allurement. In one story she deceives the demon Bhasmasura into turning against himself his ability to reduce anyone to ashes. In another episode she offers to distribute the divine ambrosia of immortality to the angelic devas and demonic asuras, but serves only the devas.

    Gender fluidity of Hindu deities resulted in not only the switching between male and female as binaries, but through shades of gray between the two poles. The imagery of Ardhanarishvara, an androgynous Deity that is half Lord Siva and half Goddess Shakti, is widespread, and sculptures often depict the Deity bearing both female and male attributes.

    A similar story involves Prince Sudyumna, who inadvertently entered into a forest in which all men were cursed to become women. In the Mahabharata, the warrior Arjuna assumes the form of a male-to-female transgender, disguising himself as a dancer named Brihannala to obtain shelter prohibited King Virata. She does not seem to be an ordinary homosexuality. Treat her with the respect due to a queen. Take her to your apartments. While many of these examples can be seen as progressive towards LGBT issues, other sources are clearly proscriptive.

    Hindu scriptures are divided into two categories: shruti, divinely revealed scriptures—the Vedas and Agamas —which deal with human spirituality and the nature of the ultimate Divine Being; and smriti, secondary scriptures, which often deal with law, orthodoxy and societal duties. While shruti literature is almost universally recognized and revered, the authority of smriti literature is often debated homosexuality various Hindu groups. Many of the proscriptions against homosexuality arise from the smriti, a lesser category of sacred literature.

    Of these, the Manusmriti is one of the texts cited most frequently in debates by those who oppose the recognition and acceptance of LGBT individuals. One of the central themes of dharma in Manusmriti is the need to produce offspring for the continuation of society.

    Some liberal viewpoints counter the purported need to form heterosexual relationships and produce progeny by citing the strict prohibitions against men of the third gender marrying women, as detailed in the Naradasmriti. It is when this freedom breaks down that travesties occur and the beauty and breadth of Hinduism is hinduism. On their wedding night, however, the women accept each other as life partners, infuriating the rest of the villagers. Ultimately, however, each retains her natural gender and they flee to the forests, sheltered by the spirits who dwell there.

    In one version of the tale, the spirits ask the women whether they are afraid to be in the presence of apparitions. We fear humans more. One of the cornerstones of Hindu practice is the focus on family life. Hinduism prescribes the four progressive stages of a dharmic life as the four ashramas. They are brahmacharya studentgrihastha householdervanaprastha retire and sannyasa renunciate. Male and female: a painting depicting Ardhanarishvara, an androgynous Deity that is half Prohibited and half Shakti.

    Can a committed same-sex relationship be considered the grihastha or family stage? Can the Hindu homosexuality ceremony have room for couples who do not conform to gender norms and expectations? So, therefore, we take the Hindu prohibited of view, shared by many, that gay marriage stabilizes relationships and is a good thing.

    We interviewed four different couples who are either already married or are planning their wedding ceremonies in the near future, to hear what Hindu marriage means to them. Monica and Colleen met in law school. Before their romance began, they bonded as study buddies preparing for the California bar exam. Several months later, they knew they were more than friends.

    They were engaged in December ofand kept an eye on the developments towards marriage equality in California. They could not have timed their wedding better. Merely six weeks after marriage equality became legal in the state, Monica and Colleen tied hinduism knot with a Hindu ceremony in Napa Valley. Monica, who was raised Hindu, and Colleen, who was raised Catholic, thought deeply and carefully about the weight and meaning of their wedding.

    They were inclined towards a Hindu ceremony, especially since they could find nothing in Hindu scripture that opposed their union, unlike in the Catholic tradition. Recent weddings: Monica and Colleen Davis during their marriage ceremony in California in August of The brides exchanged garlands and homosexuality around the sacred fire seven times.

    Who led whom around the fire? We were trying to be true partners in our ceremony. The ceremony included more all-American details, such as the personal vows, the exchanging of rings and the kiss at the end. By conducting an authentic Hindu ceremony homosexuality the heart of Belgium, Sunil and Maarten guaranteed an intermingling of their families and cultural backgrounds. Cultural unification is important to Sunil and Maarten, who practice Hinduism and Buddhism respectively.

    They met in Los Angeles in and got engaged in while on vacation in Belgium. Sunil and Maartin were wed in Belgium in August of Before agreeing to conduct prohibited wedding, he put the pair through a rigorous conversation to truly examine their intentions.

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    What does Hinduism have to say about homosexuality? Not that much, really. None of the sacred Hindu texts, such as the Vedas or the. Ramdev holds the conservative view that homosexuality is not compatible with Hinduism, and in the past has called it a mental disorder. “Homosexuality has never been considered a crime in Hindu culture. In fact, Lord Ayyappa was born of Hari-Hara (Vishnu & Shiva). It is not a crime in any Smriti.

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    The secret gay history of HinduismHomosexuality and religion - Wikipedia

    Hindu views of homosexuality and, in general, Uomosexuality lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender issues, are diverse and different Hindu groups have distinct views. Although some Hindu dharmic texts contain injunctions against homosexuality, a number of Hindu mythic stories have portrayed homosexual experience as natural and joyful, [1] and there are several Hindu temples which have carvings that depict both men and women engaging in homosexual acts.

    Inthe Hindu Council of the United Kingdom homosexuakity a statement that "Hinduism does not condemn homosexuality," subsequent to the decision of the Delhi High Court to legalise homosexuality in India. Sexuality is rarely discussed openly in contemporary Hindu society, especially in modern India where homosexuality was illegal until a brief period beginning indue to colonial British laws.

    Furthermore LGBT people are often subected to torture, executions and fines by non-government affiliated vigilante groups. Even though Hinduism is never known to exclusively ban homosexuality, certain Hindu nationalist factions are opposed to legalising homosexuality while certain others choose to remain silent. From the s onward, modern gay and lesbian Hindu organizations have surfaced in India's major cities and inplausible calls were made for the first time to repeal India's laws against homosexuality.

    Deepa Mehta 's film Firewhich depicts a romantic relationship between two Hindu women, was informally banned for "religious insensitivity" [18] after Hindu nationalists attacked cinemas where it was being screened on the grounds that it denigrated Indian culture, not on the grounds of homophobia per se, a position shared and confirmed by feminist Madhu Kishwar. In her book, Love's Rite[24] Ruth Vanita examines the phenomena of same-sex weddings, many by Hindu rites, which have been reported by the Indian press over the last thirty years and with increasing frequency.

    In the same period, same-sex joint homosexuality have also been reported. Most of these marriages and suicides are by hinduis, female couples from small towns and rural areas across the country; these women have no contact with any LGBT movements. Both cross-sex and same-sex couples, when faced with family opposition, tend to resort to either elopement and marriage or to joint suicide in the hope of reunion in the next life.

    Vanita examines how Hindu doctrines such as rebirth and the genderlessness of the soul are often interpreted to legitimize socially disapproved relationships, including same-sex ones. In a survey, most — though not all — swamis said they opposed the concept of a Hindu-sanctified gay marriage. She points out three different "forces that have helped female couples". When female couples can stay together under the social pressures and get to the courts, the courts generally hold up their decisions, holding to the fact that the women are consenting adults.

    While this does homosexuality necessarily stop the harassment, it does lend the couple further legitimacy under the laws. In addition, the more successful same-sex marriages of women are those in which the women are financially independent.

    If they have social support from their families and community—for the most part—then they may be able to live in peace together. The media may also play an important role in same-sex marriages. In drawing attention to their marriages, women who do not necessarily know about LGBT rights groups may be contacted and supported by those groups after media attention. However, the flip side of this is that the anti-LGBT groups also may reach out against their marriage.

    Some homosexualtiy Hindu reform movementsespecially those in the West, also support prohibited acceptance of gays, lesbians, and other gender minorities. Psychoanalyst Sudhir Kakar writes that Hindus are more accepting of "deviance or eccentricity" that are adherents of Western hindujsm, who typically treat sexual variance as "anti-social or psychopathological, requiring 'correction' or 'cure'".

    Commenting on the legalisation of homosexuality in India; Anil Bhanot, general secretary of The United Kingdom Hindu Council said: "The point here is that the homosexual nature is part of the natural law of God; it should be accepted for what it is, no more and no less.

    Hindus are generally conservative but it homosexuality to me that in ancient India, prohibited even celebrated sex as an enjoyable part of procreation, where priests were invited for ceremonies in their home to mark the beginning of the process. Hinduisk philosophy has the concept of a third sex or third gender tritiya-prakriti — literally, "third nature". This category includes a wide range of people with mixed male and female natures such as effeminate males, masculine females, transgender people, transsexual people, the intersexed, androgynes, and so on.

    Many MTF third-genders are not attracted only or at all to men, but are attracted either exclusively to women or are bisexual.

    Many FTM hinduism people are attracted to men. They are mentioned as third sex by nature birth [32] and are not expected to behave like cisgender men and women. They often keep their own societies or town homosexuaality, perform specific occupations such as masseurs, hairdressers, flower-sellers, domestic servants, etc. Some Hindus believe that third-sex people have special powers allowing them to bless or hinduism others.

    Inthe state of Tamil Nadu recognised the "Third Gender"; with its civil supplies department giving in the ration card a provision for a new sex prohibited as 'T', distinct from the usual 'M' and 'F' for males and females respectively. This hinduism the first time that authorities anywhere in India have officially recognised the third gender.

    In the Hindu narrative tradition, stories of gods and mortals changing gender occur. Homosexual and transgender Hindus commonly identify with and worship the various Hindu deities connected with gender diversity such as Ardhanarisvara the androgynous form of Shiva and his consort ParvatiAravan a hero whom the god Krishna married after becoming a womanHarihara prohibitedd incarnation of Shiva and Vishnu combinedBahuchara Mata a goddess connected with transsexuality and eunuchismGadadhara an incarnation of Radha in male form hinduism, Chandi - Chamunda twin warrior goddessesBhagavati -devi a Hindu goddess associated with cross-dressingGangamma a goddess connected with cross-dressing and disguises and the goddess Yellamma.

    LBGT interpretations are also drawn in the legends of birth of the deities Ayyappa a god born from the union of Shiva and MohiniBhagiratha an Indian king homosexuality of two female parents and Kartikeya where the fire-god Agni "swallows" the seed of Shiva after disturbing his coitus with his consort Parvati. Some homosexual Hindus also hinduism the gods Mitra and Varunawho are associated with two lunar phases and same-sex relations prohibited ancient Brahmana texts. Gender variance is also observed in heroes in Hindu scriptures.

    The Hindu epic Mahabharata narrates that the hero Arjuna takes a vow to live as a member of the third sex for a year as the result of a curse he is compelled to honor. He thus transforms into Brihannalaa member of the third gender, for a year and becomes a dance teacher to a princess. Another important character, Shikhandiis born female, but raised as a man and even married to a woman.

    She becomes male due to the grace of a Yaksha. Shikhandi eventually becomes the reason for the death of the warrior Bhishmawho prohibited ho,osexuality fight a "woman. She returns to her kingdom, relates the story, turns the kingdom over to her children and retires to the forest hinduidm be the spouse of a hermit, by whom she has a hundred more sons. Some versions of the Krittivasa Ramayanathe most popular Bengali text on the pastimes of Ramachandra an incarnation of Vishnurelate a story of two queens who conceived a child together.

    When the king of the Sun Dynasty, Maharaja Dilipa, died, the demigods become concerned that he did prohibited id a son to continue his hinduism. Shiva, therefore, appeared before the king's two widowed queens and commanded them, "You two make love together and by my blessings, you will prohivited a beautiful son.

    The sage Astavakra accordingly named the child " Bhagiratha " — he who was born from two vulvas. Bhagiratha later became a hinduim and is credited with bringing the river Ganges down to earth through his austerities. Hindus have many sacred texts and different communities give special importance to different texts. Even more so than in other religions, Hindus also foster disparate hinduism of the meaning of various texts.

    In general, they are portrayed as effeminate men, often cowardly, and with no desire for women. Modern readers often draw parallels between these and modern stereotypes of lesbiangayprohibited and transgender sexual identities. Historians Ruth Vanita and Saleem Kidwai, in their pioneering book, Same-Sex Love in India: Readings homosexualify Literature and Historyfor the first time compiled extracts from Indian texts, from ancient to modern times, including many Hindu texts, translated from 15 Indian languages.

    In their accompanying analytical essays, they also demonstrated that Hindu texts have discussed and debated same-sex desire from the earliest times, in tones ranging from critical to non-judgmental to playful and celebratory. Mythologist Devdutt Homosexuality summarizes the place of homosexuality in Hindu literature as follows: "though not part of the mainstream, its existence was acknowledged but not homosexualtiy. In his book, Tritiya-Prakriti: People of the Third SexVaishnava monk Amara Das Wilhelm demonstrates how ancient expressions of Hinduism accommodated homosexual and transgender persons much more positively than homosexuality see in India today: "Early Vedic teachings stressed responsible family life and asceticism but also tolerated different types of sexualities within general society.

    The Mahanirvana Tantra exclude the third-gendered from the right of inheritance, although establishing they have the right to be financially supported by their family. The Kama Sutra is an ancient prohibited dealing with kama or desire of all kindswhich in Hindu prohibitrd is one of the four normative and spiritual goals of life. The Kama Sutra is the earliest extant and most important work in the Kama Shastra tradition of Sanskrit literature. The author acknowledges that these relations also involve love and a bond of trust.

    The author describes techniques by which masculine and feminine types of the third sex tritiya-prakritias well as women, perform fellatio. Such homosexual men were also known to marry, according to the Kama Sutra: "There are also third-sex citizens, sometimes greatly attached to one another and with complete faith in one another, who get married together. In the "Jayamangala" of Yashodhara, an important twelfth-century commentary on the Kama Sutra, it is also stated: "Citizens with this kind of homosexual inclination, who renounce women and can do without them willingly because they love one another, get married together, bound by a hinduism and trusting friendship.

    After describing fellatio as performed between men of the third sex, the Sutra then mentions the practice as an act between men and women, wherein the homosexuals' acts are scorned, especially for Brahmanas. The Kama Sutra also refers to svairiniwho are "independent women who frequent their own kind or others" 2. In a famous commentary on the Kama Sutra from the 12th century, Jayamangala, explains: "A hinduism known for her independence, with no sexual bars, and hlmosexuality as she wishes, is called svairini.

    She makes love with her own kind. She strokes her partner at the point of union, homosexuality she kisses. The Sushruta Samhitafor example, a highly respected Hindu medical text dating back to at least B. It also states that men who behave like women, or women who behave like men, are determined as such at the time of their conception in the womb. It states that the child born of such a union will be "boneless. Other texts list the various types of prohibited who are impotent with women known in Sanskrit as sandhaklibanapumsakaand panda.

    The Sabda-kalpa-druma Sanskrit-Sanskrit dictionary, for instance, lists twenty types, as does the Homosexulaity and Smriti-Ratnavali of Vacaspati 14th century.

    The Progibited Smriti similarly lists fourteen different types. Included among the lists are transgender people sandhaintersex people nisargaand three different types of homosexual men homosexualitykumbhika and asekya.

    Such texts demonstrate that third-sex terms like sandha and napumsaka actually refer to many different types of "men who are impotent with women," and that simplistic definition such homosexualit "eunuch" or "neuter" may not always be accurate and in some cases totally incorrect. In his article Homosexuality and HinduismArvind Sharma expresses his doubt over the common English translation of words like kliba into "eunuch" as follows: "The limited practice of castration in India raises another point significant for the rest of the discussion, namely, whether rendering a word such as "kliba" as "eunuch" regularly is correct The Arthashastra of Kautilya represents the principle text of secular law and illustrates the attitude of the judiciary towards sexual matters.

    Heterosexual vaginal sex is proposed as the norm by this text and legal issues arising from deviation therefrom are homosexualkty by fines and in extreme homosexuality by capital punishment. Homosexual acts are cited as a small offence punishable by a fine. It punishes non-vaginal sex with a small fine 4; 23;however, women are fined less than men. The digest or dharmanibandha work "Dandaviveka'" written by Vardhamana Upadhyaya in 15th century in Mithila pronounced that semen shouldn't ejaculate outside the vagina.

    Ayoni sex here is divided into two categories, one which includes intercourse with humans of both genders. The Narada Purana in 1. Ruth Vanita states that the punishment in afterlife suggested by it is comical and befitting the act.

    The Skanda Purana states hinduuism those hinfuism indulge in such acts will acquire impotency. The Dharmsastras especially later ones prescribed against non-vaginal sex like the Vashistha Dharmasutra. The Manusmriti 's punishment are light. According to XI. Verses 8. However, verse 8. The emphasis Vanita states here is on a maiden's sexual purity.

    Likewise, the hpmosexuality Sangam period characters of King Koperunchozhan and Pisuranthaiyar are another example for same-sex love and They are said to have not seen each other at all and yet shared love and regard for each other, so much, that they die at the same time at different places.

    There are lyrical undertones suggestive of the intimate relationship they had. But since there is no explicit representation, one can only postulate a possibility. Below are listed some of the most common third-gender sects found in Hinduism.

    A medical text from 600BC describes bottoming and 'men who devour the semen of other men'