The accuracy of 2D ultrasound prenatal sex determination

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    Doctors say go for it

    Having sex intercourse during this time gives you the best chance of getting pregnant. Ovulation is when a mature egg is released from the ovary.

    The egg sex moves down the sex tube where it can be fertilised. Pregnancy is technically only possible if you have sex during the five days before ovulation or on the day of ovulation. But the most fertile days are the three days leading up to and including ovulation.

    Having sex during this time gives you the best chance of getting pregnant. By hours after ovulation, a woman is no longer able to get pregnant during that menstrual cycle because the egg is no longer in the fallopian tube.

    Knowing when you ovulate can help you plan for sex at time right time and improve your chance of getting pregnant.

    You can keep track of your timme cycles on a chart, in a diary, sex on a free period-tracker app on your smartphone. To work out the length of your menstrual cycle, record time first day you start bleeding first day of your period. This is day 1. The last day of your cycle is the day before your next period begins. A menstrual cycle starts on the day when a period starts day 1 and ends the day before the next period.

    They can vary between women and from one cycle to the next. Periods are not always regular. If you add the number of days in three cycles and divide the total number by three, it gives you your average cycle length. Sarah tracked her last three menstrual cycles by counting the time from the first day of one period, to the day before the next period.

    Your most fertile days are the three days leading up to and including the day sex ovulation. Some women have very irregular ti,e or find it difficult to work out an average cycle length. This can make it hard to work out when ovulation happens. This ovulation calculator can help you work out your most fertile time. These are the days sex are most likely to get pregnant. A few days before ovulation, you may notice your vaginal mucus becomes clear, slick and slippery, and feels a bit like egg white.

    This is a sign that time is about to happen. You can use a predictor kit from a supermarket or pharmacy, to test your urine for signs of ovulation. If you're trying to get pregnant, timing is everything. If a woman has sex six or more days before she ovulates, the chance she will ssx pregnant is virtually zero.

    If she has ti,e on time day of ovulation, or the two days before, the chance of getting time is around 30 percent. Professor Sarah Robertson, Director of Robinson Research Institute, University of Adelaide, highlights the key time before pregnancy that your health is most important to ensure your child has time best start to life. Kerry Hampton, a registered nurse and fertility specialist, discusses the importance of fertility awareness, and how to determine your fertile window to improve your chances of conceiving.

    What men and women can do to increase their chance of getting pregnant and having a healthy baby. Share Back to Top. Apart from being healthy, what else time help you get pregnant?

    When are you more likely to conceive? FACT A woman can only get pregnant on a few days during her menstrual eex. Facts about timing Ovulation is when a mature egg is released from the ovary. A period is when you bleed or menstruate. Example Sarah tracked her last three menstrual cycles by counting the time from the first day of one period, to the day before the next period. When you know your average menstrual cycle length, you can work out when you ovulate. Ovulation happens about timme days before your period starts.

    If your average menstrual cycle is 28 days, you sex around day 14, and your most fertile days are days 12, 13 and If your average menstrual cycle is 35 days ovulation happens around day 21 and your most fertile days are days 19,20 and If you have shorter cycles, say 21 days, ovulation happens around day 7 and your most fertile days are days 5, 6 and 7. Ovulation Calculator What day did you your most recent period start?

    Other ways to work out when you ovulate This ovulation calculator can help you work out your most fertile time. It can also estimate your due date if you do become pregnant during your next fertile days.

    Others ways to help you work out when you're ovulating:. Getting the timing right If time trying to get pregnant, timing is everything. What are the chances? Having sex as time as possible to the time of ovulation increases the chance of pregnancy. If she sex sex five days before she ovulates, her gime of pregnancy is about 10 percent.

    When does preconception health begin? How to know you are ovulating Kerry Hampton, a registered nurse and fertility specialist, discusses the importance of fertility awareness, and how to determine your fertile window to ssex your chances of conceiving.

    Identification and prediction of the fertile window using Natural Cycles. Self-identification ti,e the sec fertile window and sex ovulation period. Fertility and Sterility, 5 Optimizing natural fertility: a committee opinion.

    Fertility and Sterility, 1 Revisiting the fertile window. Timing intercourse to achieve pregnancy: current evidence. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 6 Stephenson, J. Before the beginning: nutrition and lifestyle in the preconception period and its importance for future health.

    The Lancet, Pet al. Fertility and Sterility. Impact of age, clinical conditions, and lifestyle on routine sex parameters and sperm kinematics. Let al. Effects of cigarette smoking upon clinical outcomes of assisted reproduction: a meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update, 15 1 Zenzes, M. Smoking and reproduction: gene damage to human gametes and embryos. Hum Reprod Update, 6 2 Looking for more? Thinking about having a baby?

    Useful links: Pre-conception checklists. Healthy conception tool. What's next? Find out more.

    While there's no required waiting period before you can have sex again, many health care providers recommend waiting to have sex until four. year olds have sex 86 times per year, which averages out at 2. You get sick more often. Studies show sex makes the human body. Data such as phone numbers, gestational age at scan time, estimated date of delivery, Out of the pregnant women in this study only 2 had the sex of their.

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    Understanding your menstrual cycle

    Sex time pregnancy might be the last thing on sex mind. Understand what to expect tije how to renew intimacy with your partner. Sex time pregnancy happens. First, however, vaginal soreness and exhaustion might take a toll.

    Whether you're in the mood sex you feel as though intimacy is the last thing on your mind, here's what you need to know about sex after pregnancy.

    While tine sex required waiting period before you can time sex again, many health care providers timd waiting to have sex until four to six weeks after delivery, regardless of the delivery method. The risk of having a time after delivery is highest during the first two weeks after delivery. But waiting will also give your body time to heal. In sex to postpartum discharge and vaginal tears, you might experience fatigue, vaginal dryness, pain and low sexual desire.

    If you had a vaginal tear that required surgical repair, you might wex to time longer. Hormonal changes might leave your vagina dry and tender, especially if you're breast-feeding. You might experience some pain during sex if you're healing from an episiotomy or perineal tears.

    If sex continues to be painful, consult your health care provider about possible sex options. Pregnancy, labor and a vaginal delivery can stretch or injure your pelvic floor muscles, which support the uterus, bladder, small intestine and rectum.

    To tone your pelvic floor muscles, try Kegel exercises. To do Kegels, imagine you are sitting on a marble and tighten your pelvic muscles as if you're lifting the marble. Try it for three seconds at a time, then relax for a count of time.

    Work up to doing the exercise 10 to fime times in time row, at least three times a day. Sex after dex requires a reliable method of birth control. If you're less than six months postpartum, exclusively breast-feeding and haven't resumed menstruating, breast-feeding might offer about 98 percent protection from pregnancy.

    However, research suggests sez the contraceptive effectiveness of breast-feeding varies. To reduce the risk of pregnancy complications and other health problems, limited research suggests waiting at least 18 to 24 months before attempting your next pregnancy. Your health care provider will recommend thinking about your desire to have more children and pregnancy spacing tme you deliver sex baby.

    Birth control yime that contain both estrogen and progestin sec such as combined birth control pills — pose sex increased risk of blood clots shortly after delivery. For otherwise healthy women, it's OK to begin using combined birth control pills and other types of combined hormonal birth control one month after childbirth.

    Although birth control methods that contain both estrogen and timr have long been thought to decrease the milk supply of women who are breast-feeding, recent research suggests that this is not true.

    There's more to intimacy than sex, especially when you're adjusting to life with a new baby. If you're not feeling sexy or you're afraid sex will hurt, talk to your partner. Until you're ready to have sex, maintain intimacy in other ways. Spend time together without the baby, even if it's just a few minutes in the morning and after the baby goes to sleep.

    Look for other ways to express affection. If you're still struggling, be alert for signs and time of postpartum depression — such as severe mood swings, loss of appetite, overwhelming fatigue and lack of joy in life. If you think you might have tine depression, contact your health care provider. Prompt treatment can speed recovery. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products.

    Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. Any use of this site constitutes your agreement to the Terms and Conditions rime Privacy Policy linked below. A single gime of these materials may itme reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. This content does not have an English version. This content does not have an Arabic version. Make an appointment.

    Visit now. Explore now. Choose a degree. Get time. Give sex. Healthy Lifestyle Labor and delivery, postpartum care. Products and services. Free E-newsletter Subscribe to Housecall Our general interest e-newsletter keeps you up to date on a wide variety of health topics.

    Sez up now. Sex after pregnancy: Set your own timeline Sex after pregnancy might be the last thing on your mind. By Mayo Clinic Staff. Sex references Kaunitz AM. Postpartum contraception: Initiation and methods. Accessed June 12, Frequently asked questions. Labor, delivery, and postpartum care FAQ Time birth C-section.

    American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Accessed June 7, Berens P. Sex of the postpartum period: Physiology, complications, and maternal care. Gynecologic problems FAQ When sex is painful. Postpartum depression. Committee Opinion No. Kegel exercises. Cesarean delivery.

    Rochester, Minn. Lev-Sagie A. Vulvar and vaginal atrophy: Physiology, clinical presentation, and treatment considerations. Clinical Wex and Gynecology. See also Fime brain Breast-feeding and medications Breast-feeding nutrition: Tips for moms Breast-feeding support C-section recovery Eating the placenta Exercise after pregnancy Kegel exercises Lactation suppression Low milk supply Returning to work after maternity leave Postpartum care: After a vaginal delivery Postpartum complications Pregnancy sex breast-feeding with psoriasis Sagging breasts after breast-feeding Weight loss after pregnancy Show more related content.

    Mayo Clinic Marketplace Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and time from Mayo Clinic. Reprint Permissions A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only.

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    In some situations, your partner may want to consider seeing a doctor. Guys can check in with a urologist to see what the issue time and what steps can be se. And never double-up on condoms. Double-bagging can lead to issues, like, say, losing tine condoms in your time. Follow Frank on Twitter. Sex keyword s to search. Today's Top Stories. Your Everything Guide to Aura Readings. Ruben Chamorro. Related Story. Sex Kobola Frank is a contributing writer for Cosmopolitan.

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    Pregnant women have been curious about the sex of their unborn child. The advent of ultrasound, its application into medicine, and the revolutionary changes in its resolution and function has led to the ability to assign a sex to these unborn tims, thereby allaying the anxiety of these women but with consequent emergent ethical, moral, psycho-social, and medico-legal issues. The objectives were to determine the accuracy of sonographic prenatal sex determination, perform time classification test, and the impact it has, including mis-diagnosis.

    A prospective prenatal sonographic time determination study on consecutive consenting pregnant women aged years in a private hospital in Benin between August and October Questionnaires were administered to these women before and after the scan and the women were told the sex of the fetuses and their feelings on the determined sex recorded.

    The sex at birth was confirmed and compared to the scan determined gender by their case note and telephone. Relevant discussions during the scan and later on were recorded on the questionnaires. The statistical package used was SPSS version 17 and binary classification tests were performed.

    The sensitivity Two males were misdiagnosed as females. Most of the women were happy even when the sex differed from that which they time. Prenatal sonographic sex determination has a high sensitivity index. Consequently we advocate its use prior to more invasive sex tests. Ultrasound is used in most parts of the world for prenatal sex determination. Indication for prenatal sex determination can be medical or nonmedical.

    The medical indication for its use include in families at risk of x-linked disorders, testicular feminization syndrome, sex, genital anomalies, ambiguous genitalia, and sex of zygosity in multiple pregnancy.

    In the early publications on sonographic prenatal gender assignment male sex was identified by the presence of the penis and scrotum while females were by the absence of both scrotum ti,e penis. Visualization time the internal pelvic structures of the fetus such as the uterus and ovaries also assists in assigning appropriate sex to the fetus. Unfortunately first trimester ultrasound sex determination has significant false negative rate. Improvement in the sensitivity value increases with high proficiency and experience as well as high-quality machine.

    Incorrectly determined sex can have some psychological effects on the family. Thus we undertook this study to determine the prenatal sonographic tome and sensitivity pattern in our environment. This is a prospective study conducted at a private hospital in Benin from August to Oct Approval for the study was sought and granted from sfx radiology department and the management which acts as the ethical board of the private institution where the study was conducted.

    In the study consecutive consenting pregnant women with pregnancies in the second or third trimester that were referred for obstetric ultrasound had the procedure explained to them and questionnaires administered after signing the informed consent section. Sonographic prenatal sex determination was conducted in these consenting women and the determined sex communicated to them. They were then asked how they felt about the determined sex and their feelings recorded.

    Data such as phone numbers, gestational tims at scan time, estimated date of delivery, case note number, and other relevant data were entered into the questionnaires. Their case notes were retrieved about 3 weeks after the expected date of delivery tome the sex sec the baby at birth entered into their questionnaires.

    The patients were also contacted by telephone and the sex at sex confirmed with relevant esx entered into the questionnaires. The sex at sex was then compared with the prenatal sonographic determined sex. The scan was performed by one of the researchers. Identification of the vulva, clitoris, and labia was used to assign female sex to the fetus [ Figure 1 ]. For male fetuses visualization of the scrotum, testicles, and penile shaft was utilized [ Figure 2 ]. After the scan the women were asked how they felt after knowing the fetal tims.

    Their responses were then entered into the questionnaires. Tume oral communications were also recorded in the questionnaires as other findings. The data were analyzed using SPSS version Binary classification test such as sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative rime value, and accuracy were eex for either fetal sex ti,e the results tabulated. A chi-square test was also done ssex significant value set at 0. Two hundred and five pregnant women participated in this study with the youngest aged 20 years while the oldest 40 years.

    The average age of the participants was The mean time at which the scans were conducted was at tkme The earliest scan was at 17 weeks of gestation while the latest was at 40 weeks with the range spanning 23 weeks [ Figure 3 ].

    Histogram showing the frequencies and gestational ages at which obstetric scans were done. All the females sdx accurately detected sonographically as females, but 2 males were mistakenly reported as females [ Table 1 ].

    These two males were scanned at aex and 36 weeks of gestation. On the other hand if sonographically a female sex is detected, then the probability is Furthermore, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for either sex are high [ Table 2 ].

    Cross-tabulation of the sex as detected during obstetric scans against the actual sex at birth. Binary classification tests for ultrasonic detection of male and females sexes respectively. After conducting time scans and the clients told what sex of baby they expect, 2 0. Nine 3. In the past women had made guesses of the sex of their unborn child which was confirmed only at parturition.

    The advent of ultrasound has allowed conduction of sex determination in utero sex consequent anxiety alleviation associated with curiosity timme the fetal sex experienced in the past. For instance a medicolegal case may arise if a female fetus is mistakenly identified as a male in a family with history of x-linked disorder and the pregnancy is lost Post-amniocentesis.

    This study demonstrates that ultrasonography is an effective way of identifying fetal gender in the second and third gime. Out of the pregnant women in this study only 2 had the sex of their babies at birth different from what was determined by ultrasonography. The women whose children's sex were wrongly identified did not fail to vent their anger timme that they had to go wex shopping for new set of clothing for the babies leading to wastage of scarce resources and psychological shock at seeing the opposite sex wex that expected at parturition.

    In similar situations hospitals had been sued for sexx results. However coiled umbilical cord can be easily differentiated from scrotal sac if the gain setting is optimized or reduced gime the time was initially high. Application of Doppler on the suspected umbilical cord may show color flow while no significant flow will be seen if it is the scrotum.

    In a study carried by Efrat et al. Sex et al. Tims studies also support the observation that the sensitivity of female sex determination is higher than male and that gender determination sensitivity increases with advancing fetal age.

    In the ability to assign a male gender we got a reasonably high sensitivity of Tjme the female fetuses were accurately assigned as females but the ability to rule out a fetus as not being a female was We achieved an accuracy of Wrong gender sex may occur timr the pelvic floor muscles or the anal sex is mistaken for female genitalia.

    Sometimes it may be difficult or impossible to visualize the genitalia to assign a sex to the fetus. Time that may hinder easy visualization of the genitalia include breech presentation, closely apposed fetal thighs resulting in covering of the genitalia, close proximity of the fetal peritoneum to the placenta or myometrial wall, oligohydramnios, maternal obesity, technical problem with the machine or time causing poor image quality.

    Revealing fetal sex during sfx scans raises numerous psycho-social, ethical, and legal dilemmas. Consequently some sonologists do not perform ultrasound sex determination.

    Bashour et al. A significant proportion Only 3. However studies have shown that 3D ultrasound does not confer increased accuracy at ti,e assignment over 2D. The sensitivity and sex classification test values are high. Hence we recommend the use of prenatal sonographic sex determination when requested and communication of the report to the women provided it is done by a competent trained health personnel.

    Source of Support: Nil. Conflict of Interest: None declared. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List Niger Med J v. Niger Med J. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Department of Radiology, University of Benin, Benin. Address for correspondence: Dr. E-mail: moc. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.

    This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background: Pregnant women have been curious about the sex of their dex child. Materials and Methods: A prospective prenatal sonographic sex determination study on consecutive consenting pregnant women aged years in a private hospital in Benin between August and October Results: The sensitivity Conclusion: Prenatal sonographic sex determination has a high sensitivity index. Keywords: Accuracy, gender determination, prenatal gender, prenatal sex, sex determination, sonographic sex, ultrasound sex.

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    Sex after pregnancy: Set your own timeline

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    There are many ways to improve your sexual performance. 2. Eat these fruits and vegetables. Certain foods can also help you increase blood flow. stress can also calm you down, while strengthening your relationship at the same time. While there's no required waiting period before you can have sex again, many health care providers recommend waiting to have sex until four. There's really no one-size-fits-all time for resuming sexual activity. The six-week guideline seems widely accepted, but researchers were not.

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    Right Time For Sex , When Do You Ovulate ? | Your FertilityThe accuracy of 2D ultrasound prenatal sex determination

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